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2nd year Anatomy > ENT > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENT Deck (82)
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1

What type of cartilage is the nasal cartilage?

Hyaline

2

Which structures form the roof, lateral walls and septum of the nasal cavities?

Roof - cribriform plate and crista galli

Lateral wall -Conchae, ethmoidal air cells, orbital plate of the ethmoid

Septum - periperpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer

3

What are the three types of mucosa in the nasal cavity?

Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

Respiratory epithelium

Olfactory mucosa

4

Which nerve supplies the lateral wall and septum of the nasal cavity?

Ophthalmic CN V1 anterosuperiorly

Maxillary CN V2 posteroinferiorly

5

Describe the blood supply to the nasal cavities

Facial artery
- Nasal branch
- Septal branch of the superior labiel artery

Maxillary artery
- Sphenopalatine
- Greater palatine

Ophthalmic artery
- Anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries

6

What is the name of the arterial anastomosis on the nasal septum?

Kiesselbach's area

(Common site of epistaxis)

7

Which arteries anastomose at Kisselbach's area?

A&P ethmoidal arteries

Sphenopalatine artery

Greater palatine artery

Septal artery

8

On inserting a nasogastric tube, where should the tip of the tube be seen on x-ray to confirm correct placement?

Below the diaphragm at 10cm beyond the gastro-oesophageal junction

9

What are the functions of the nasal cavities?

Transport of air to the nasopharynx

Filter and humidify air

Warms air

Sense of smell (as air passes over the olfactory epithelium)

10

What are sinuses?

Air-filled spaces within bones

These are extensions of the nasal cavities!

11

Where does the sphenoidal sinus drain to?

Sphenoethmoidal reces

12

Where does fluid in the ethmoidal cells drain to?

Superior and middle meatus

13

Where does the frontal sinus drain to?

Middle meatus

14

Where does the maxillary sinus drain to?

Middle meatus

15

Where does lacrimal fluid drain to?

Inferior meatus

16

Pain sensation from sinusitis is transmitted via which nerves?

CN V1 and CNV2
- May be referred to the teeth

17

Which sinus is the most likely to be inflamed and which is this?

Maxillary sinus

Maxillary sinus mucus has to drain against gravity

18

What are the two parts of the temporal bone

Squamous

Petrous

19

Which part of the temporal bone articulates with other bones at the pterion (H-shaped suture)

Squamous

20

What is the thinnest part of the skull?

Pterion

Between the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bones

21

Which part of the temporal bone contains the inner ear/ otic capsule?

Petrous

22

Which bones make up the anterior cranial fossa, what foramina are found here and what nerves pass through the skull here?

Frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid

Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

CN I

23

Which bones make up the middle cranial fossa, what foramina are found here and what nerves pass through the skull here?

Sphenoid, temporal

Optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, intracranial opening of the carotid canal

CN II, CN III, CN IV, CN V, CN VI

24

Which bones make up the posterior cranial fossa, what foramina are found here and what nerves pass through the skull here?

Occipital, temporal

Internal acoustic meatus, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canal

CN VII - CN XII

25

Which nerves pass through the jugular foramen?

CN IX, CN X, CN XI

26

Which nerves pass through the internal acoustic meatus?

CN VII, CN VIII

27

What does the external ear consist of and what is its function?

Auricle to the tympanic membrane

Collects and conveys sound waves to the tympanic membrane

28

What does the middle ear consist of and what is its function?

Tympanic membrane to the oval window + the eustachian tube

Amplifies and conducts sound waves to the internal ear

29

What does the internal ear consist of and what is its function?

Oval window to the internal acoustic meatus

Converts special sensory information and sends it to the brain

30

What is the sensory nerve supply to the helix and the ear lobes?

Anterior rami of C2, 3 spinal nerves