Flashcards in ENT Deck (82)
What type of cartilage is the nasal cartilage?
Which structures form the roof, lateral walls and septum of the nasal cavities?
Roof - cribriform plate and crista galli
Lateral wall -Conchae, ethmoidal air cells, orbital plate of the ethmoid
Septum - periperpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer
What are the three types of mucosa in the nasal cavity?
Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
Which nerve supplies the lateral wall and septum of the nasal cavity?
Ophthalmic CN V1 anterosuperiorly
Maxillary CN V2 posteroinferiorly
Describe the blood supply to the nasal cavities
- Nasal branch
- Septal branch of the superior labiel artery
- Greater palatine
- Anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries
What is the name of the arterial anastomosis on the nasal septum?
(Common site of epistaxis)
Which arteries anastomose at Kisselbach's area?
A&P ethmoidal arteries
Greater palatine artery
On inserting a nasogastric tube, where should the tip of the tube be seen on x-ray to confirm correct placement?
Below the diaphragm at 10cm beyond the gastro-oesophageal junction
What are the functions of the nasal cavities?
Transport of air to the nasopharynx
Filter and humidify air
Sense of smell (as air passes over the olfactory epithelium)
What are sinuses?
Air-filled spaces within bones
These are extensions of the nasal cavities!
Where does the sphenoidal sinus drain to?
Where does fluid in the ethmoidal cells drain to?
Superior and middle meatus
Where does the frontal sinus drain to?
Where does the maxillary sinus drain to?
Where does lacrimal fluid drain to?
Pain sensation from sinusitis is transmitted via which nerves?
CN V1 and CNV2
- May be referred to the teeth
Which sinus is the most likely to be inflamed and which is this?
Maxillary sinus mucus has to drain against gravity
What are the two parts of the temporal bone
Which part of the temporal bone articulates with other bones at the pterion (H-shaped suture)
What is the thinnest part of the skull?
Between the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bones
Which part of the temporal bone contains the inner ear/ otic capsule?
Which bones make up the anterior cranial fossa, what foramina are found here and what nerves pass through the skull here?
Frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid
Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
Which bones make up the middle cranial fossa, what foramina are found here and what nerves pass through the skull here?
Optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, intracranial opening of the carotid canal
CN II, CN III, CN IV, CN V, CN VI
Which bones make up the posterior cranial fossa, what foramina are found here and what nerves pass through the skull here?
Internal acoustic meatus, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canal
CN VII - CN XII
Which nerves pass through the jugular foramen?
CN IX, CN X, CN XI
Which nerves pass through the internal acoustic meatus?
CN VII, CN VIII
What does the external ear consist of and what is its function?
Auricle to the tympanic membrane
Collects and conveys sound waves to the tympanic membrane
What does the middle ear consist of and what is its function?
Tympanic membrane to the oval window + the eustachian tube
Amplifies and conducts sound waves to the internal ear
What does the internal ear consist of and what is its function?
Oval window to the internal acoustic meatus
Converts special sensory information and sends it to the brain