Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (44)
What is the diencephalon?
Thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the thing called which connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
Infundibulum / pituitary stalk
What is the relationship of the pituitary gland to the optic chiasm?
Pituitary gland lies inferior to the optic chiasm
Therefore pituitary tumours can affect the visual pathway
What effect does a pituitary tumour have on the visual pathway?
What type of epithelium lines the paranasal sinuses?
Mucous secreting respiratory epithelium
What is a paired structure that joints with the contralateral member of its pair?
(this was a spot Qs)
There is a tough layer of dura matter over the cerebellum within the posterior cranial fossa. What is this called?
There is a tough sheet of dura matter forming a roof/ diaphragm over the pituitary fossa. What is this called?
What is the tentorium cerebelli and what is the diaphragm sellae?
Tentorium cerebelli = tough layer of dura matter over the cerebellum in the posterior cranial fossa
Diaphragm sellae = tough layer of dura matter forming a roof over the pituitary fossa
Dural venous sinuses are venous channels within the dura matter which drain most of the venous blood from the cranial cavity. Which veins do they drain into? Where does this occur
Internal jugular veins
At the jugular foramina in the floor of the posterior cranial fossa
Name a paired bone which protects the organs of hearing and balance, includes the acoustic meatus, carotid canal, glenoid fossa and the zygomatic process.
Name the bone which contains a paranasal sinus, forms most of the floor of the cranial fossa, protects the pituitary gland and has canals for the passage of the optic nerve (CN II)
Name an unpaired bone in the anterior cranial fossa
What is the relationship of the thyroid gland to the trachea?
The thyroid gland lies anterior to the 2nd and 3rd cartilages of the trachea
Due to this relationship with the larynx and trachea, lumps within the thyroid gland will move on swallowing
What is adam's apple?
The laryngeal prominence
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
On the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland
What is the craic with the pyramidal thyroid lobe?
Additional thyroid lobe which only exists in some people. It most commonly originates from the left lateral lobe and most attach superiorly to the thyroid cartilage, but it may extend as far superiorly as the hyoid bone.
Where does the thyroid gland develop from?
Thyroid gland begins its development as a midline epithelial proliferation of the tongue at the junction between the anterior 2/3rds and the posterior 1/3rd.
It then migrates inferiorly while remaining attached to the tongue via the thyroglossal duct.
Where are the platysma muscles found?
Immediately deep to the skin within the superficial fascia of the neck
Which nerve innervates the platysma muscles?
The facial nerve
These are muscles of facial expression
The prevertebral deep fascia of the neck encloses which structures?
Postural neck muscles and cervical vertebrae
The investing fascia of the neck encloses which structures?
This fascia encloses all of the other neck fascial compartments as well as enclosing the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
The carotid sheaths are anterolateral fascia compartments of the neck. What structures are contained within these sheaths?
Deep cervical lymph nodes
Internal jugular veins
Which structures are contained within the pre tracheal fascia?
Recurrent laryngeal nerves
What are the attachments of the trapezius muscle?
Spine of the scapula
Lateral end of the clavicle
What are the attachments of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
Sternal head attaches to the manubrium of the sternum
Clavicular head attaches to the medial end of the clavicle
Both heads attach to the mastoid process of the temporal bone superiorly
Which nerve innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles?
CN XI (spinal accessory nerve)
Which vein does the external jugular vein drain into?
Which vein does the anterior jugular vein drain into?
External jugular vein