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2nd year Anatomy > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (44)
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What is the diencephalon?

Thalamus and hypothalamus


What is the thing called which connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?

Infundibulum / pituitary stalk


What is the relationship of the pituitary gland to the optic chiasm?

Pituitary gland lies inferior to the optic chiasm

Therefore pituitary tumours can affect the visual pathway


What effect does a pituitary tumour have on the visual pathway?

Bitemporal hemianopia


What type of epithelium lines the paranasal sinuses?

Mucous secreting respiratory epithelium


What is a paired structure that joints with the contralateral member of its pair?

(this was a spot Qs)

Vertebral arteries


There is a tough layer of dura matter over the cerebellum within the posterior cranial fossa. What is this called?

Tentorium Cerebelli


There is a tough sheet of dura matter forming a roof/ diaphragm over the pituitary fossa. What is this called?

Diaphragm sellae


What is the tentorium cerebelli and what is the diaphragm sellae?

Tentorium cerebelli = tough layer of dura matter over the cerebellum in the posterior cranial fossa

Diaphragm sellae = tough layer of dura matter forming a roof over the pituitary fossa


Dural venous sinuses are venous channels within the dura matter which drain most of the venous blood from the cranial cavity. Which veins do they drain into? Where does this occur

Internal jugular veins

At the jugular foramina in the floor of the posterior cranial fossa


Name a paired bone which protects the organs of hearing and balance, includes the acoustic meatus, carotid canal, glenoid fossa and the zygomatic process.

Temporal bone


Name the bone which contains a paranasal sinus, forms most of the floor of the cranial fossa, protects the pituitary gland and has canals for the passage of the optic nerve (CN II)

Sphenoid bone


Name an unpaired bone in the anterior cranial fossa

Ethmoid bone


What is the relationship of the thyroid gland to the trachea?

The thyroid gland lies anterior to the 2nd and 3rd cartilages of the trachea

Due to this relationship with the larynx and trachea, lumps within the thyroid gland will move on swallowing


What is adam's apple?

The laryngeal prominence


Where are the parathyroid glands located?

On the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland


What is the craic with the pyramidal thyroid lobe?

Additional thyroid lobe which only exists in some people. It most commonly originates from the left lateral lobe and most attach superiorly to the thyroid cartilage, but it may extend as far superiorly as the hyoid bone.


Where does the thyroid gland develop from?

Foramen caecum

Thyroid gland begins its development as a midline epithelial proliferation of the tongue at the junction between the anterior 2/3rds and the posterior 1/3rd.

It then migrates inferiorly while remaining attached to the tongue via the thyroglossal duct.


Where are the platysma muscles found?

Immediately deep to the skin within the superficial fascia of the neck


Which nerve innervates the platysma muscles?

The facial nerve

These are muscles of facial expression


The prevertebral deep fascia of the neck encloses which structures?

Postural neck muscles and cervical vertebrae


The investing fascia of the neck encloses which structures?

This fascia encloses all of the other neck fascial compartments as well as enclosing the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles


The carotid sheaths are anterolateral fascia compartments of the neck. What structures are contained within these sheaths?

Vagus nerves
Deep cervical lymph nodes
Carotid arteries
Internal jugular veins


Which structures are contained within the pre tracheal fascia?

Strap muscles
Recurrent laryngeal nerves


What are the attachments of the trapezius muscle?

Spine of the scapula

Lateral end of the clavicle


What are the attachments of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?

Sternal head attaches to the manubrium of the sternum

Clavicular head attaches to the medial end of the clavicle

Both heads attach to the mastoid process of the temporal bone superiorly


Which nerve innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles?

CN XI (spinal accessory nerve)


Which vein does the external jugular vein drain into?

Subclavian vein


Which vein does the anterior jugular vein drain into?

External jugular vein


Which arteries provide the main blood supply to the thyroid gland?

Superior and inferior thyroid arteries