ENT Allergy Flashcards Preview

Systems 2 - Head and Neck > ENT Allergy > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENT Allergy Deck (13):
1

What is the definition of allergy?

Hypersensitive disorder of the immune system

2

How do hypersensitive allergic reactions occur?

Reaction occur to normally harmless substances known as allergens; these reactions are acquired

3

Give an example of an allergic:

Skin reaction
URT reaction
LRT reaction
Systematic reaction

Skin - Urticaria/angioedema
Upper respiratory: Rhinitis
Lower respiratory - asthma
Systematic - anaphylaxis

4

What is the pathophysiology of type 1 (hypersensitivity reactions)

Sensitisation - Plasma cells produce IgE (binds to mast cells)

Rexposure - mast cells degranulate releasing histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins and chromotactic factors

5

What is the physiological effect of mast cell degranulation?

Causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, leukocyte infiltration (especially eosinophils)

6

What is allergic rhinitis?

Allergic inflammation of the nasal airways

7

What are the risk factors for allergic rhinitis?

Atopy, FHx, environmental factors

8

What are the immediate and latent effects of allergic rhinitis?

Immediate - sneezing, itching, nasal blockage, rhinorrhoea

Latent - chronic obstruction, hyposmia, hyperactivity

9

What are the two classifications of duration of allergic rhinitis?

Intermittent (symptoms lasting <4 days/week or < 4 consecutive weeks)

Persistent (>4 days/week and >4 consecutive weeks)

10

What are the two classifications of severity of allergic rhinitis?

Mild - symptoms present but not troublesome

Moderate-severe - sleep disturbance, impairment of activities, issues at school/work, troublesome symptoms

11

What principle investigations are appropriate for allergic rhinitis?

Skin test - tests response to known allergens

RAST - tests presence of specific allergen IgE ni serum

12

What other investigations are indicated for allergic rhinitis?

- Total serum IgE
- Nasal Allergen challenge
- Nasal cytology

13

What is the treatment of allergic rhinitis?

Education about allergen avoidance

and...

Topical intranasal steroids/ oral steroids

Antihistamines

Sodium cromoglycate (anti-allergen)

Allergen immunotherapy

Anti-IgE