Paediatric ENT Flashcards Preview

Systems 2 - Head and Neck > Paediatric ENT > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paediatric ENT Deck (26):
1

What three things must you distinguish when presented with a child who has hearing loss?

Congenital vs acquired
Unilateral vs bilateral
Conductive vs sensorineural

2

List the subjective assessments of hearing loss

6-18 months: distraction test
12 months - 3 years: visual reinforced audiometry
3-5 years: play audiometry
5 years+ : pure tone audiometry

3

List the objective assessment of the auditory system

Otoacoustic emissions

Auditory brainstem response

Tympanometry (middle ear pressure)

4

What is the most common cause for hearing loss in children?

Otitis media with effusion

5

What are the risk factors for OM with effusion?

Infections at day care, smoking, cleft palate, Downs syndrome

6

What is the treatment for OM with effusion?

Most resolve spontaneously

Hearing aids/grommits and adenoidectomy

7

What are the signs and symptoms of OM with effusion?

Symptoms - hearing loss, speech delay, behavioural problems, academic decline, imbalance

Signs - dull tympanic membrane, fluid bubbles

8

What is the cause of OM with effusion?

Eustachian tube failure
Muscular immaturity
Adenoidal hypertrophy
Resolving acute OM

9

What is otitis externa?

Discharging ear caused by inflammation around the external auditory canal

10

What is the treatment for otitis externa?

Aural micro suction (drain and clean)

Topical antibiotics

Water precautions (keep it dry)

11

What are the principle microbes responsible for causing acute OM?

H. influenzae, strep pneumoniae, moraxella catarrhalis

12

How is acute OM treated?

Co-amoxiclav

Grommets/ Adenoidectomy if recurrent

13

What are the symptoms of acute OM?

Pain, fever, discharge

14

What are the complications of acute OM?

Mastoiditis leading to brain abscess

15

What is chronic OM and how is it treated?

Recurrent/persistent infection of middle ear caused, most commonly, by cholesteatoma.

Treated with mastoidectomy (open antrum and clean out)

16

What are the clinical features of chronic OM?

Chronic discharge and hearing loss despite grommets in place

17

What is the normal development time to aeration of the sinuses in children?

Ethmoids/maxillary: 0-4 months
Sphenoid: 3-7 years
Frontal: 8 years to adolescence

18

When should you be suspicious of a foreign body in the nose?

Unilateral discharge

19

What is choanal atresia?

Congenital bilateral blockage of the nasal passage

20

What is the treatment for non-acute tonsillitis?

Viral - symptomatic treatment

Bacterial - 24hrs IV antibiotics if persistent

21

What is the treatment for acute tonsillitis?

Difficulty to breath requires steroids and IV antibiotics

22

What complications can occur from tonsillitis?

Peritonsilar abscess (quincy)

23

What is laryngomalacia?

Congenital condition caused by collapsing of soft immature cartilage of epiglottis so when they breath it obstructs the airway

24

What is the treatment for larygnomalacia?

Normally maintain saturation and eat well so just let them grow out of it (2/3 years)

25

What is a branchial cysts?

A cyst formed from epithelial tissue of the lateral neck

26

What is cystic hygroma?

Left posterior triangle of the neck - blockage of lymphatic drainage leading to cyst formation