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Flashcards in ENT Emergencies Deck (32):
1

Causes of emergency airway obstruction

Epiglotitis
Retropharyngeal abscess (complication - mediastinitis)
Ludwigs angina - cellulitis of floor of mouth
Angiodema - hereditary, ACEi, hypersensitivity

2

How does mastoiditis develop

2ndry to AOM
Direct spread to bone or
Indirect via emissary vein of mastoid

3

Management of mastoiditis

CT brain
Abx
+- surgery

4

Diff for mastoiditis

Post auricular lymphadenitis

5

Common site for epistaxis

kieselbachs plexus (anterior)
Littles area

6

Rx for anterior bleeds

Abc
Compression
Cautery (silver nitrate)
Decongestants
Topical Abx
Bed rest

In posterior add nasal packing and spa ligation if needed

7

When to manipulate nasal fracture deformity

5 days to 2 weeks

8

Sign for oesophageal perf form foreign body

Para vertebral air

9

Acute management of stridor

Abc
Adrenalin neb
Oxygen
Calm
Refer
Est diagnosis

10

Common causes for upper airway obstruction in children

- adenotonsillar hypertrophy
- retropharyngeal abscess
- epiglottitis
- foreign body

11

Procedure for long uvula

- partial uvulectomy
- uvulapalatopharyngoplasty

12

Features of Ramsy-Hunt syndrome

- pain
- CN VII palsy
- sensorineural hearing loss

13

Complications of a quinsy

- airway obstruction
- deep neck space abscess

14

Complications of EBV

- bacterial superinfection
- hepatitis
- thrombocytopaenia

15

Complications of diptheria

- airway obstruction
- myocarditis

16

Where are papillomas found?

- nostrils
- larynx

17

Stridor

Noisy breathing due to air flow changes within larynx, trachea or bronchi

18

Stertor

Noisy breathing due to obstruction of airway above larynx, produced by vibrations of tissue of nasopharynx, pharynx or soft palate

19

Treatment of stridor

- nebulised adrenalise
- oxygen
- calm environment
- emergency referral
- establish diagnosis

20

Symptoms of epiglottitis

- prefer to sit
- muffled voice
- dysphagia
- drooling
- restlessness

21

Symptoms of retropharyngeal abscess

- pain
- dysphagia
- dyspnoea
- fever

22

Complication of retropharyngeal abscess

Mediastinitis

23

What is Ludwig's angina?

- rapidly progressive cellulitis of floor of the mouth
- usually in elderly debilitated patients
- precipitated by dental procedures

24

Treatment of Ludwig's angina

- ICU
- antibiotics
- airway management

25

Definition of mastoiditis

Inflammation and osteitis within the mastoid air cell system or periosteitis of the mastoid process

26

How does the mastoid become infected?

- direct bone erosion through the cortex
- indirectly through the emissary vein of the mastoid

27

Symptoms of mastoiditis

- otaliga
- otorrhoea
- fever
- irritability
- post-auricular swelling

28

Places where facial nerve palsies can originate

- ear
- parotid gland
- parapharyngeal
- skull base
- temporal bone trauma

29

Treatment of idiopathic facial nerve palsy

- consider steroids
- eye care
- ENT OPD appointment

30

Organisms responsible for chondritis

- S. aureus
- pseudomonas
(inflammatory causes related to seronegative arthritis may be indistinguishable from infection - ear lobe usually spared)

31

Arteries making up Keiselbachs plexus

- anterior ethmoid artery
- posterior ethmoid artery
- spheno-palatine artery
- greated palatine artery
- septal branch of superior labial artery

32

What to do if you suspect large foreign body

- barium swallow