Flashcards in ENT - Microbiology Deck (30):
Is Sore throat usually:
Viral (over 2/3rds)
Which bacteria is the most common cause of sore throat?
(aka. Group A Strep/ Group A beta haemolytic Strep)
What is the clinical name for a bacterial sore throat cause by Strep pyogenes?
Acute follicular tonsillitis
What is the antibiotic treatment of bacterial sore throat?
What are the complications of streptococcal sore throat?
What are the clinical features of Diptheria?
Severe sore throat
Grey white pseudomembrane in the posterior pharynx
Which bacteria is seen in oral candida/thrush?
What is acute otitis media?
An Upper Respiratory infection involving the middle ear
Which group of people most likely get acute otitis media? And how do they present?
Infants and children
Present with earache
Are middle ear infections viral or bacterial?
Often viral with with bacterial secondary infection
Common causative bacteria of middle ear infections? (4)
When is the only time a swab sample is able to be obtained in middle ear infection?
If the ear drum is perforated
What is the recommended treatment for middle ear infections?
First line = amoxicillin
Second line = erythromycin
What clinical features suggest a secondary bacterial infection in acute sinusitis?
Tenderness over sinuses
Purulent nasal discharge
How long does acute sinusitis last?
How long does chronic sinusitis last?
Acute = <4 weeks
Chronic = >4weeks
What are the 3 types of Otitis externa?
Localised otitis externa
Acute diffuse otitis externa
Chronic diffuse otitis externa
What are the bacterial causes of otitis externa?
Most commonly bacterial
Who commonly gets bacterial otitis externa?
Name two final causes of otitis externa
When should you swab an otitis externa?
If it is unresponsive to ‘aural toilet’ (wash out of the external ear)
What is the fancy name for glandular fever?
What are the clinical symptoms of glandular fever?
Enlarged lymph nodes
What virus is responsible for glandular fever?
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
Which Type of Herpes simplex virus causes oral lesions and when is it acquired?
Type 1 (HSV1)
Acquired in childhood
What name is given to a severe HSV1 infection?
Which type of HSV give rise to cold sores (oral herpes)?
What technique is used to confirm HSV in the lab?
PCR test of swab in viral transport medium (for Viral DNA detection)
Herpangina is ulcers on the soft palate. What virus causes it and how is it diagnosed?
Virus = coxsackie virus
Diagnosis = clinically or PCR test of swab in viral transport medium (for viral DNA detection)
What other disease dies coxsackie virus also cause?
Hand, foot and mouth disease