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Medicine Year 2 > ENT - Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENT - Microbiology Deck (30):
1

Is Sore throat usually:
Viral/Bacterial?

Viral (over 2/3rds)

2

Which bacteria is the most common cause of sore throat?

Streptococcus pyogenes
(aka. Group A Strep/ Group A beta haemolytic Strep)

3

What is the clinical name for a bacterial sore throat cause by Strep pyogenes?

Acute follicular tonsillitis

4

What is the antibiotic treatment of bacterial sore throat?

Penicillin

5

What are the complications of streptococcal sore throat?

Rheumatic fever
Glomerulonephritis

6

What are the clinical features of Diptheria?

Severe sore throat
Grey white pseudomembrane in the posterior pharynx

7

Which bacteria is seen in oral candida/thrush?

Candida albicans

8

What is acute otitis media?

An Upper Respiratory infection involving the middle ear

9

Which group of people most likely get acute otitis media? And how do they present?

Infants and children
Present with earache

10

Are middle ear infections viral or bacterial?

Often viral with with bacterial secondary infection

11

Common causative bacteria of middle ear infections? (4)

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Streptococcus pyogenes
Moraxella

12

When is the only time a swab sample is able to be obtained in middle ear infection?

If the ear drum is perforated

13

What is the recommended treatment for middle ear infections?

Most self-limiting
First line = amoxicillin
Second line = erythromycin

14

What clinical features suggest a secondary bacterial infection in acute sinusitis?

Severe pain
Tenderness over sinuses
Purulent nasal discharge

15

How long does acute sinusitis last?
How long does chronic sinusitis last?

Acute = <4 weeks
Chronic = >4weeks

16

What are the 3 types of Otitis externa?

Localised otitis externa
Acute diffuse otitis externa
Chronic diffuse otitis externa

17

What are the bacterial causes of otitis externa?

Most commonly bacterial
Staphylococcus aureus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

18

Who commonly gets bacterial otitis externa?

Swimmers

19

Name two final causes of otitis externa

Aspergillus niger
Candida albicans

20

When should you swab an otitis externa?

If it is unresponsive to ‘aural toilet’ (wash out of the external ear)

21

What is the fancy name for glandular fever?

Infectious mononucleosis

22

What are the clinical symptoms of glandular fever?

Fever
Enlarged lymph nodes
Sore throat/pharyngitis/tonsillitis
Malaise/Lethargy

23

What virus is responsible for glandular fever?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

24

Which Type of Herpes simplex virus causes oral lesions and when is it acquired?

Type 1 (HSV1)
Acquired in childhood

25

What name is given to a severe HSV1 infection?

Primary gingivostomatitis

26

Which type of HSV give rise to cold sores (oral herpes)?

Type 1

27

What technique is used to confirm HSV in the lab?

PCR test of swab in viral transport medium (for Viral DNA detection)

28

Herpangina is ulcers on the soft palate. What virus causes it and how is it diagnosed?

Virus = coxsackie virus
Diagnosis = clinically or PCR test of swab in viral transport medium (for viral DNA detection)

29

What other disease dies coxsackie virus also cause?

Hand, foot and mouth disease

30

Apthous ulcers are non-viral.
True or False?

True