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Medicine Year 2 > Renal - Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal - Anatomy Deck (72):
1

What constitutes the upper urinary tract?

Kidneys and ureters

2

What constitutes the lower urinary tract?

The bladder and the urethra

3

Where might an upper urinary tract infection spread to?

The kidneys

4

What type of urinary tract infection involves the urethra and bladder?

Lower urinary tract infection

5

Where do the kidneys and proximal ureters lie?

The abdomen

6

Which parts of the urinary tract lie in the pelvis?

Distal ureters
The bladder
Proximal urethra

7

Where does the distal urethra lie?

The perineum

8

Are the kidneys intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?

Retroperitoneal

9

What structures are found at the renal hilum?

Renal artery
Renal vein
Ureter

10

Which 3 muscle layers make up the anterolateral abdominal wall?

External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversal abdominis

11

What are the layers of peritoneum, fat and fascia around the kidneys?

Anterior to posterior:
Visceral peritoneum
Paranephric fat
Renal fascia
Perinephric fat
Renal Capsule
Kidney

12

Is the IVC closer to the right or left kidney?

Right

13

Which kidney sits higher? Left or right?
And why?

Left
Because the right is pushed down by the liver

14

What vertebral levels fo the kidneys sit at?

Left = T12-L2
Right = L1-L3

15

Do the kidneys move superiority or inferiorly on inspiration? And why?

Inferiorly
This is because the lungs inflate which pushes the diaphragm inferiorly which in turn pushes the liver/spleen inferiorly which pushes on the superior poles of the kidneys pushing them inferiorly.
Therefore they move superiorly on EXpiration

16

What does the right kidney sit posteriorly to?

The liver (and hepatorenal recess of the peritoneal cavity)
2nd part of the duodenum
Ascending colon
Right colic flexure/hepatic flexure

17

What does the left kidney lie posterior to?

Stomach
Tail of the pancreas
Hilum of the spleen
Splenic vessels

18

Which lies anterior the renal veins or arteries?

VEINS anterior to ARTERIES

19

Are the common iliac arteries anterior or posterior to the common iliac veins?

Anterior
(Arteries anterior, veins posterior)

20

At what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate at?
And what does it bifurcate to form?

The level of the umbilicus
Become the right and left common iliac arteries.

21

Where does lymph from the kidneys drain?
And where are these nodes found?

The lumbar nodes
Found around the abdominal aorta and IVC

22

Which two places does lymph from the ureters drain to?
And where are these located?

The lumbar nodes:
Found around the abdominal aorta and IVC
AND
The iliac nodes:
Found around the common, internal and external iliac vessels

23

Branches from which arteries make up the ureteric arterial supply? (Blood supply to the Ureters)

Renal artery
Abdominal artery
Common iliac artery
Internal iliac artery
Vesical (bladder) artery

24

Which two types of abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause renal artery stenosis and why?

Infra-renal AAA:
Both the AAA and the stenosis cause by atherosclerosis
Supra-renal AAA:
Aneurysm causes an occlusion of the proximal renal artery

25

What are the names of the outer and inner parts of the kidney?

Outer cortex
Inner Medulla

26

What is found within the medulla of the kidneys?

Renal pyramids containing around 50,000 nephrons each

27

What is the order of the parts of the nephron?

Glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting duct

28

What is the job of the glomerulus?

Ultrafiltration of the blood arriving from the branches of the renal artery

29

Where does the urine pass through after leaving the collecting duct of the nephrons because it gets to the ureter?

Collecting duct
Minor calyx
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Ureter

30

Where are the main sites that the ureter can become constricted?

Pelviureteric junction (where the ureter begins at the renal hilum)

Where the ureter crosses anteriorly to the common iliac artery

Ureteric orifice (Where the ureter drains into the bladder)

31

What can renal calculi (stones) be formed by?

Urine calcium salts

32

What does the ureter do when there is a obstruction?

Increased peristalsis proximal to the obstruction (to try and remove it to the bladder) in waves resulting in colicky pain

33

What is hydronephrosis?

“Water inside the kidney”
Urine back pressure into the kidneys causing renal failure and an enlargement of the kidney and stretches the renal capsule

34

What constitutes the ‘fake pelvis’?

From the iliac crests to the pelvic inlet

35

What constitutes the ‘true pelvis’ (pelvic cavity)?

Pelvic inlet to pelvic floor

36

What are your pelvic floor muscles?

Levator ani (pelvic diaphragm)

37

What is the perineum?

Shallow compartment between pelvic floor and skin

38

At what level do the ureter enter the posterior aspect of the bladder?

Ischial spine

39

In what direction do the ureters enter the bladder and why?

Inferomedial direction to prevent reflux of urine when the bladder contracts

40

What is another name for the pouch of Douglas? And where is it?

Rectouterine pouch
Pouch in the peritoneal cavity that sits between the rectum and the uterus

41

What is the name of the pouch in the peritoneal cavity anterior to the pouch of Douglas?

The vesicles-uterine pouch (between the uterus and the bladder)

42

What does the ureter run inferiorly to in males and females respectively?

Males = Vas deferens
Females = Uterine tubes and uterine artery

43

The arteries entering the pelvis are mainly branches from which artery?

Internal iliac artery

44

Where do veins from the pelvis drain to?

Internal iliac vein

45

What is the ‘trigone’ and what makes it up?

Triangle shape on the internal aspect of the bladder formed by:
2 ureteric orifices
Internal urethral orifice

46

Where does the prostate lie in relationship to the bladder in the male pelvis?

Prostate inferior to the bladder

47

What is the name of the muscle that makes up the main bulk of the bladder?

Detrusor muscle (de-trouser to pee)

48

What is the muscle that the detrusor muscle forms at the top of the urethra?
And what does it do in men during ejaculation and why?

Internal urethral sphincter muscle
Contracts during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation of semen back into the bladder

49

What are the two methods of catheterising a patients bladder?

Urethral
Suprapubic

50

What are the different parts of the male urethra?

Internal urethral orifice
Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary)
Prostatic urethra
External urethral sphincter (voluntary)
Spongy urethra
External urethral orifice

51

Where do the testes move from and to during feral development?

From the posterior abdomen through the inguinal canal to the scrotum

52

What structure are found in the spermatic cord?

Testicular artery
Testicular vein
Vas deferens
Lymphatic vessels
Nerves (autonomic and somatic)

53

What 2 parts make up the nephron?

The renal corpuscle and the renal tubules

54

What makes up the renal corpuscle?

The glomerulus and the bowmans capsule (squamous epithelium)

55

What are podocytes?

The special endothelial cells that lie on top of the glomerular capillaries

56

What is the epithelium of the thick ascending limb on the loop of Henle?

Simple cuboidal epithelial cells

57

What are the vasa recta?

Thin blood vessels surrounding the loop of Henle

58

Where is the loop of Henle found?

In the medulla of the kidney

59

Where are the proximal and distal convoluted tubules found?

The renal cortex

60

What is the difference between the simple cuboidal epithelial cells of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules?

The proximal convoluted tubule cells have a brush border of microvilli and the DCT cells do not.

61

What three components make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

The macula densa
Lacis cells
Juxtaglomerular cells

62

What type of epithelium layers the conducting parts of the urinary tract? (Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pevis etc.)

Transitional epithelium (aka urothelium)

63

What is the name of the sac that the testes sit in?

Tunica vaginalis

64

What is the name for given to excess fluid within the tunica vaginalis?

Hydrocele

65

What does the spermatic cord contain?

Vas deferens
Testicular artery
Pampiniform venous plexus

66

Where do the right and left gonadal veins drain to?

Right = straight into IVC
Left = Left renal vein

67

What passes through the deep inguinal ring?

Testicular artery
Testicular vein
Vas deferens
Lymphatic
Nerves

68

Where would you find the epididymis and what tubules come before it and drain into it?

The posterior aspect of the testis
Seminiferous tubules

69

What are the 3 tissue sections in the body of the penis?

Right and left corpus cavernosum
Corpus spongiosum

70

Branches from which artery supply:
1. The penis?
2. The scrotum?

1. The internal pudendal artery
2. Internal pudendal AND external iliac artery

71

Where does lymph from the scrotum and most of the penis (not the glans) drain to?

Superficial inguinal lymph nodes

72

Where does lymph from the testes drain to?

The lumbar nodes around the abdominal aorta