Which Vitamins are Fat soluable?
Fat soluable absorption is dependent on what?
Gut and pancreas.
Why are fat soluable vitamins more toxic than Water soluable?
Because they accumulate in Fat.
What can cause fat soluable deficencies?
Malabsorption syndromes like cystic fibrosis and sprue, or mineral oil intake.
Which of the Water soluable vitamins can't be washed out easy and where will it be stored?
B12, folate stored in the liver.
Vitamin A is what Nutrient?
What are the 4 functins of retinol aka Vitamin A?
1. Rhodoposin formation. 2. Integrity of epithelia. 3. Lysosome stability. 4. Glycoprotein synthesis.
What will Rhodopsin do?
It is a photoreceptor pigment in the retina known as retinal.
What will Vitamin A deficiencies cause?
Night blindness, dry skin, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xeropthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality in young children.
What will Vitamin A toxicity cause?
Headache, fatigue, skin changes, hepatospleomegaly, bone thickening/arthralgias, intracranial hypertension, and papilledema.
What nutrient(s) will vitamin D be?
What are the 4 functions of cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka Vitamin D?
Ca and P absorption, mineralization and repair of bone, tubular reabsorption of Ca, insulin and thyroid function.
Vitamin D helps with insulin and thyroid function which leads to what?
Immune function, reduces autoimmune disease.
A cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka vitamin D deficiency leads to what?
Rickets, osteomalacia, and hypocalcemic tetany.
What will Vitamin D toxicity lead to?
Hypercalcemiam anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcifications.
D2 and D3 what type of Vitamin D are they?
What type of Vitamin D comes from milk and what kind comes from the sun?
What is 25-OH D3?
Storage form of Vitamin D.
What is 1,25 (OH)2 D3?
Active form of Vitamin D.
Excess Vitamin D is seen in what?
What is sarcoidosis?
disease where the pithelioid macrophages convert vitamin D inot its active form.
What degree latitude do you need to live below to get enough vitamin D from the sun?
What levels of Vitamin D will make you deficient, insufficient, sufficient, and toxic?
Deficient- 20 ng/ml. Insufficient- 20-29 ng/ml. Sufficient- 30 ng/ML (Dr. R says 50). Toxic- more than 150 ng/ml.
What nutrient(s) will vitamin E be?
Alpha-tocopherol, other tocopherols.
What are the 2 functions of alpha-tocopherol and other tocopherols aka vitamin E?
intracellular antioxidant, scavenger of free radicals in biologic MEMBRANES.
What will a Vitmain E deficieny lead to?
RBC hemolysis/fragility, neurologic deficits.
What will a vitamin E toxicity lead to?
Tendency to bleed.
What is the most active form of Vitamin E?
How many known forms of Vitamin E are there?
There are 8.
What nutrient(s) will Vitamin K be?