Environmental and Nutrition Diseases Flashcards Preview

Pathology I Test II > Environmental and Nutrition Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental and Nutrition Diseases Deck (121)
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1

Which Vitamins are Fat soluable?

A,D,E,K.

2

Fat soluable absorption is dependent on what?

Gut and pancreas.

3

Why are fat soluable vitamins more toxic than Water soluable?

Because they accumulate in Fat.

4

What can cause fat soluable deficencies?

Malabsorption syndromes like cystic fibrosis and sprue, or mineral oil intake.

5

Which of the Water soluable vitamins can't be washed out easy and where will it be stored?

B12, folate stored in the liver.

6

Vitamin A is what Nutrient?

Retinol.

7

What are the 4 functins of retinol aka Vitamin A?

1. Rhodoposin formation. 2. Integrity of epithelia. 3. Lysosome stability. 4. Glycoprotein synthesis.

8

What will Rhodopsin do?

It is a photoreceptor pigment in the retina known as retinal.

9

What will Vitamin A deficiencies cause?

Night blindness, dry skin, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xeropthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality in young children.

10

What will Vitamin A toxicity cause?

Headache, fatigue, skin changes, hepatospleomegaly, bone thickening/arthralgias, intracranial hypertension, and papilledema.

11

What nutrient(s) will vitamin D be?

Cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol.

12

What are the 4 functions of cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka Vitamin D?

Ca and P absorption, mineralization and repair of bone, tubular reabsorption of Ca, insulin and thyroid function.

13

Vitamin D helps with insulin and thyroid function which leads to what?

Immune function, reduces autoimmune disease.

14

A cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka vitamin D deficiency leads to what?

Rickets, osteomalacia, and hypocalcemic tetany.

15

What will Vitamin D toxicity lead to?

Hypercalcemiam anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcifications.

16

D2 and D3 what type of Vitamin D are they?

D2-ergocalciferol. D3-cholecalciferol.

17

What type of Vitamin D comes from milk and what kind comes from the sun?

milk-D2. Sun-D3.

18

What is 25-OH D3?

Storage form of Vitamin D.

19

What is 1,25 (OH)2 D3?

Active form of Vitamin D.

20

Excess Vitamin D is seen in what?

Sarcoidosis.

21

What is sarcoidosis?

disease where the pithelioid macrophages convert vitamin D inot its active form.

22

What degree latitude do you need to live below to get enough vitamin D from the sun?

the 37th.

23

What levels of Vitamin D will make you deficient, insufficient, sufficient, and toxic?

Deficient- 20 ng/ml. Insufficient- 20-29 ng/ml. Sufficient- 30 ng/ML (Dr. R says 50). Toxic- more than 150 ng/ml.

24

What nutrient(s) will vitamin E be?

Alpha-tocopherol, other tocopherols.

25

What are the 2 functions of alpha-tocopherol and other tocopherols aka vitamin E?

intracellular antioxidant, scavenger of free radicals in biologic MEMBRANES.

26

What will a Vitmain E deficieny lead to?

RBC hemolysis/fragility, neurologic deficits.

27

What will a vitamin E toxicity lead to?

Tendency to bleed.

28

What is the most active form of Vitamin E?

a-tocopherol.

29

How many known forms of Vitamin E are there?

There are 8.

30

What nutrient(s) will Vitamin K be?

Phyloquinone, menaquinones.