What is thermoregulation?
Body's ability to maintain desire body core temp
How does Radiation help?
only effective when skin temp> environment
How does conduction contribute?
transfer heat b/w solids and/or liquids
How does convection contribute?
heat transfer to air current moving about body
How does Evaporation help?
most effective means of heat loss for almost all'
most effective wat to maintain safe body temp while exercising;
prolonged sweating leads to loss of body fluids which can cause dehydration and or heat illness
Muscle spasms related to excessive loss of water and several electrolytes
Imbalance of essential elements in muscle contraction result in painful muscle contractions and cramps
How do you manage cramps?
Adequate replacement of fluids
Mild prolonged stretching with ice massage
Cramping is likely to reoccur**
What is Heat Exhaustion?
Occurs when you fail to replace fluids and salt lost through evaporation
Mild hyperthermia rectal temp <104 F
NO evidence of CNS dysfuction
Signs and Symptoms of heat exhaustion?
Cool clammy pale skin
Heat exhaustion management
Remove from play and taken to cool place
Remove excess clothing/equipment
Have pt lie down with legs elevated
Rectal to <101F
Rehydrate with water or sports drink
What is a heat stroke?
A medical emergency: body is basically shutting down
CNS abnormalities and potential tissue damage
Loses ability to dissipate heat
Signs and Symptoms of Heat stroke?
Raised body temp >104F
Hot, red, dry skin
Strong fast pulse
Shallow, fast respiration
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
How to treat Heat Stroke?
Cool pt ASAP
-move to shade
-whole body cooling
-remove clothing and equipment
-ice pack, towels
Fluids--> electrolyte solutions, water
Rapid physical fatigue during overexposure to heat
Pooling of blood in extremities leading to dizziness, fainting, and nausea
Replenish fluids put in cool area and lie down
How to prevent heat illnesses
Gradually acclimatize to environment
Provide fluids-increase intake of Ca, Na, K
Provide adequate rest and opportunity for cooling
Screen those with past hx heat illness
Weight record chart
What are some Cold illnesses?
What is the triad that lead to cold illness?
high chill factor
Exposure to a damp, freezing cold--common with high wind
Happens in: ears, nose, cheeks, chin, fingers, toes
May peel or blister 24-72 hrs
skin appears firm and cold, painless areas
How to treat frost nip?
Firm, sustained pressure of the hand (rubbing) by blowing hot breath on the spot
What is frostbite?
Chilblains result from exposure to dry temp well below freezing for many hrs
Below freezing temp may cause ice crystals to form beneath or w/in the cells
Local caps can be injured, blood clots may form, blood may be shunted away from injury to ensure survival of the nonaffected tissue
What characterizes superficial frostbite?
involves only the skin and subcutaneous tissue
skin appears pale, hard, cold, and waxy
palpation reveals sense of hardness but w/yielding of underlying deep tissue
When rewarming will first feel numb then will sting and burn
What characterizes deep frostbite?
indicates tissues are frozen
tissue is initially cold, hard, pale, white, and numb
rapid rewarming is required
-skin will become blotchy red, swollen, extremely painful
How do you prevent frostbite?
proper clothing layers--fabric that allows sweat to evaporate
googles, face masks,
replace fluids regularly-dehydration
Two types of heat/humidity indicators
What are activity restriction levels?
82.1-86.0-use discretion in planning intense exercises limit to 2.5 hrs outside
86.1-89.9-stop outdoor px
>90 cancel outdoor exercise