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Flashcards in Environmental Emergencies Deck (27)
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1

What is thermoregulation?

Body's ability to maintain desire body core temp

2

How does Radiation help?

only effective when skin temp> environment

3

How does conduction contribute?

transfer heat b/w solids and/or liquids

4

How does convection contribute?

heat transfer to air current moving about body

5

How does Evaporation help?

most effective means of heat loss for almost all'

most effective wat to maintain safe body temp while exercising;

prolonged sweating leads to loss of body fluids which can cause dehydration and or heat illness

6

Heat Illnesses

Hyperthermia

Heat cramps

Heat exhaustion

Heat stroke

 

7

Heat Cramps

Muscle spasms related to excessive loss of water and several electrolytes

Imbalance of essential elements in muscle contraction result in painful muscle contractions and cramps

8

How do you manage cramps?

Adequate replacement of fluids

Mild prolonged stretching with ice massage

Salt tablets

Salting food

 

Cramping is likely to reoccur**

9

What is Heat Exhaustion?

Occurs when you fail to replace fluids and salt lost through evaporation

Mild hyperthermia rectal temp <104 F

NO evidence of CNS dysfuction

10

Signs and Symptoms of heat exhaustion?

Profuse sweating

Dizziness

Nausea

Headache

Rapid Pulse

Cool clammy pale skin

11

Heat exhaustion management

Remove from play and taken to cool place

Remove excess clothing/equipment

Have pt lie down with legs elevated

Rectal to <101F

Rehydrate with water or sports drink

Monitor vitals

12

What is a heat stroke?

A medical emergency: body is basically shutting down

CNS abnormalities and potential tissue damage

Loses ability to dissipate heat

13

Signs and Symptoms of Heat stroke?

Raised body temp >104F

Hot, red, dry skin

Strong fast pulse

Shallow, fast respiration

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

Mental delirium

Sudden collapse

14

How to treat Heat Stroke?

Medical emergency

Cool pt ASAP

-move to shade

-whole body cooling

-remove clothing and equipment

-ice pack, towels

Fluids--> electrolyte solutions, water

15

Heat syncope

Rapid physical fatigue during overexposure to heat

Pooling of blood in extremities leading to dizziness, fainting, and nausea

Replenish fluids put in cool area and lie down

16

How to prevent heat illnesses

Gradually acclimatize to environment

Provide fluids-increase intake of Ca, Na, K

Provide adequate rest and opportunity for cooling

Lightweight clothing

Educate coaches

Screen those with past hx heat illness

Weight record chart

17

What are some Cold illnesses?

Hypothermia

Frost Nip 

Frostbite

 

18

What is the triad that lead to cold illness?

inadequate clothing

improper warm-up

high chill factor

19

Frost Nip

Exposure to a damp, freezing cold--common with high wind

Happens in: ears, nose, cheeks, chin, fingers, toes

May peel or blister 24-72 hrs

skin appears firm and cold, painless areas

20

How to treat frost nip?

Firm, sustained pressure of the hand (rubbing) by blowing hot breath on the spot

21

What is frostbite?

Chilblains result from exposure to dry temp well below freezing for many hrs

Below freezing temp may cause ice crystals to form beneath or w/in the cells

Local caps can be injured, blood clots may form, blood may be shunted away from injury to ensure survival of the nonaffected tissue

22

What characterizes superficial frostbite?

involves only the skin and subcutaneous  tissue

skin appears pale, hard, cold, and waxy

palpation reveals sense of hardness but w/yielding of underlying deep tissue

When rewarming will first feel numb then will sting and burn

23

What characterizes deep frostbite?

indicates tissues are frozen

medical emergency

tissue is initially cold, hard, pale, white, and numb

rapid rewarming is required

-skin will become blotchy red, swollen, extremely painful

24

How do you prevent frostbite?

proper clothing layers--fabric that allows sweat to evaporate

googles, face masks,

replace fluids regularly-dehydration

25

Two types of heat/humidity indicators

Sling pschrometer

Digital psychormeter

26

What are activity restriction levels?

<78-normal activity

82.1-86.0-use discretion in planning intense exercises limit to 2.5 hrs outside

86.1-89.9-stop outdoor px

>90 cancel outdoor exercise

27