Environmental influences on Health Flashcards Preview

1st Year FoPC > Environmental influences on Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental influences on Health Deck (22):
1

Define hazard

Something with the potential to cause harm.

2

Define risk

-The likelihood of harm occurring.

3

Define risk factor

-Something that increases the risk of harm

4

Define protective factor

-Something that decreases the risk of harm.

5

Define susceptibility

-Influences the likelihood that something will cause harm.

6

What are the types of hazards? (5)

-Physical
-Chemical
-Mechanical
-Biological
-Psychological

7

What are the routes of exposure? (4)

-Skin
-Blood/sexual
-Inhalation
-Ingestion

8

What are the factors that influence the degree of risk? (3)

-How much exposed
-Method of exposure
-Conditions of exposure

9

What are the principles of risk perception?

1. Feeling in control (in/voluntary - voluntary = less risk)

-2. The Size of the possible harm (greater possible harm (even if less likely) = greater risk)

-3. Familiarity with the risk (less familiar = greater risk)

10

Give an example of an involuntary feeling in control risk.

-Plane trip

11

Give an example of a voluntary feeling in control risk.

-Car trip

12

What are the variables in risk perception? (7)

-Previous experience
-Attitudes towards risk
-Values
-Beliefs
-Socio economic factors
-Personality
-Demographic factors

13

What direct pathological effects can the environment have?

Physical (radiation, noise/vibration)
-Chemical (pesticides, volatile organic compounds)
-Biological (infectious agents, allergic substances)

14

What indirect pathological effects can the environment have?

-Housing (e.g. Overcrowding)
-Transport (e.g. Walking/car use)
-Town planning (e.g.amenities, social networks)
-Income/welfare/wealth distribution

15

How many occupational fatal injuries were there in 2010/11?

-171

16

How many occupational non fatal injuries were there in 2010/11?

->100,000

17

How many deaths/year are due to past exposures at work?

12,000

18

How many deaths/year are due to occupational cancer?

8,000

19

How many deaths/year are there due to COPD gained from past work exposure?

4000

20

How many cases are there per year due to ill health/work?

1.2

21

Describe the problem with global health and sustainabilty.

Inequalities in health within and between
countries
 Local problems may be generated or have
consequences globally
 Effective use of limited resources
 Technology
 Managing expectations and facilitating
behavioural change
 Politics/human rights/gender issues

22

three examples of hazardous exposure

Diet
Inhalation
Dermal