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Flashcards in EXAM QS 1 Deck (10):

1) The prevalence of obesity has doubled over the last 20 years in the USA. A recent survey of the Scottish population estimated that the prevalence of obesity in males was 22%.
define prevalence and incidence

● prevalence = the number of people in population with a specific disease at a single point in time or in a defined period of time
●incidence = the number of new cases of disease in a population in a specified period of time


2) List 5 actions the government could take to stem the rise in obesity:

● health education (diet / exercise)
● tax (on unhealthy foodstuffs)
● legislation (ingredients on cans / labelling)
● enforcement of the above legislation
● ban on advertising unhealthy food
● improve exercise / sport facilities
● subsidise / fund healthy food
● transport policy
● funding of NHS treatment


3) List 4 examples of what the GP could do to help individual patients:

● role model
● prescribing
● tailored advice (diet / exercise)
● referral (dietician etc)
● treat diseases that contribute to obesity
● arrange to see regularly
● education about risks associated with obesity
● tackle underlying causes (depression / low self-esteem)


4) List 5 other health professionals who could also be involved in obesity management or prevention:

● community dietician
● psychologist
● pharmacist
● bariatric surgeon (2ndary care)
● practise nurse
● school nurse
● health visitor
● midwife


6) Explain the difference between statistical and cultural definitions of normality:

● statistical normality = based on the normal distribution curve / standard deviation
● cultural normality = based on norms and values within a certain group (community)


7) How might changes in cultural perceptions of normality have led to the observed statistical differences illustrated earlier (in part 5):

● the fact that people see more obese people shifts their notion of what is normal; it becomes accepted, and normal, to eat eat more junk food, take less exercise etc
● thus being obese becomes normal; obesity may be perceived to be related to affluence or attractiveness or health


8) How might obesity affect an individual's health at each of the 3 levels listed below:

● psychological = reduced self-esteem
● physical = difficult to move or keep fit
● social = ostracization by peers


9) Health care systems differ between different countries; the UK has a very strong primary care organisation compared to the USA; the GP is often described as a gatekeeper to secondary care:
● what do we mean by the term gatekeeper in this context

○ a person who controls patients' access (via referral) to specialist / secondary care


● list 2 advantages of GPs as gatekeepers

○ keep people out of expensive secondary care
○ continuity of the doctor-patient relationship
○ personal advocacy
○ patient does not know where to go / appropriate referral / use of resources


● list 2 disadvantages of GPs as gatekeepers

○ patients have less choice in secondary care
○ puts stress on GP to know everything about every disease / symptom
○ dependent on individual GP knowledge, attitudes, skill, practice organisation
○ puts stress on a good doctor-patient relationship
○ seeing a GP might increase the time it takes to receive the needed treatment