hat are the key issues in CBD?
- Measures and incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity
- Regulated access to genetic resources
- Access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology
- Technical and scientific cooperation
- Impact assessment
- Education and public awareness
- Provision of financial resources
- National reporting on efforts to implement treaty commitments
- In addition to biodiversity, it is also about people and our need for food, security, medicines, fresh air and water, shelter, and a clean healthy environment in which to live
What are the 5 biodiversity targets agreed upon in Nagoya 2010?
Aichi biodiversity targets
Strategic goal A - Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
Strategic Goal B - Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
Strategic Goal C - To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
Strategic Goal D - Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
Strategic Goal E - Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building
What are the CBD goals for each country?
1 - Identifying and monitoring components of biological diversity
2 - Eastablishing protected areas (e.g. SSSI)
3 - Rehabilitating and restoring degraded ecosystems
4 - Promoting recovery of threatened species
5 - Respecting, preserving and maintaining traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities
6 - Preventing introduction of, controlling, and eradicating alien species
7 - Controlling risks posed by organisms modified by biotechnology
8 - Promoting public participation e.g. environmental impact assessment
9 - Educating people and raising awareness of biodiversity
10 - Reporting on how each country is meeting its biodiversity goals
What national action has to be taken under the CBD?
Government lead - develop Natural Biodiversity Strategies and action plans - integrate with environmental planning
Key Sectors - Forestry, agrigulture, fisheries, enrgy, transportation and urban planning
Surveys - Find out what’s present
Implement conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
Report back to the convention
Give some examples of countries in which initiatives are provided to help integrate the objectives of CBD
- Uganda 1994 - adopted a programme under which protected wildlife areas shared part of their tourism revenues with local people
- Costa Rica 1996, provisions given to private landowners and forest managers who maintain or increase the area of forest they own
- ## Mexico - shade coffee, coffee grown in mixed tropical forest to lessen monocultures
What is the UK BAP?
UK Biodiversity Action Plan
- published in 1994, UK’s response to CBD
- UK was the first country to produce a BAP
- Plan described the biological resources of the UK and provided detailed plans for conservation of these resources
- Action plans were made to aid recovery of most threatened spp. and habitats, reports were produced every 3-5 years
What are the three types of action plans?
Species action plans - UK BAP SAP: 382 spp.
Habitat action plans - UK BAP HAB: 45 detailed
Local biodiversity action plans (LBAP’s)
Give an example of a species on the SAP
Current status - UK’s only endemic bird spp. restricted to Caledonian pine forest
Current Action - forestry commission management/restoration of pine forest
Action plan objectives and targets - Maintain the current range and population size
Policy and legislation - Promote protection, creation and management of native pine woods
Give an example of a habitat on the HAB
Native Scottish pinewoods Caledonian Forest
Supports rare spp. like juniper and crossbills
Browsing by deer and sheep, frgamentation, historical overexploitation and overgrazing have affected the habitat
Policy aims to create conditions suitable for regeneration of native piny by removing planted non-native spp. and reducing browsing levels
Give an example of a LBAP
Renfrewshire, East Renfrewshire and Inverclyde
- Covers Renfrewshire
- Partners involved are Renfrewshire council and conservation organisations
- Funded by the government
- SAP - 11spp. - includes Atlantic salmon, European otter, hen harriers, green hairstreak butterfly, waxcaps
- HAP - 7 habitats - includes unimproved grasslands, rivers/streams, urban areas
What threats do montane habitats face in the UK? (12)
Afforestation - non-native conifers, site drainage
Air pollution - sensitive to nitrogen and acid deposition
Development - wind farms, communication masts
Inappropriate burning - wildfires deliberate or accidental
Erosion - drainage, overgrazing, climate drying, recreation
Illegal collection - some montane plants
Over/Undergrazing - management
Improvement - agriculture/game rearing
Invasive spp. - possibly linked with climate/pollution
Peat extraction - direct damage and disrupts hydrology
Quarrying - removal of limestone
Recreation - hill walkers/all terrain vehicles/rock climbing
In what ways can lichens be used as an indicator species and for bimonitoring?
Detection of rocks rich in lead and other metals (metaliferous indicator species)
Time sequence monitoring of heavy metal deposition
Estimation of ambient SO2 levels
Indication of nitrate deposition
Describe a study in relevance to the question - Even when lichens continue to survive in urban areas, can they reproduce?
Laundon (1967) - studied two common urban lichens on gravestones in London
Studied L.dispersa and C.heppiana
Looked at old and new gravestones - Found that L.dispersa was common on old and new gravestones
- Found that C.heppiana showed little colonisation of gravestones after the year 1900
Potentially shows that by the year 1900 SO2 levels were high enough to stop C.happiana spores from germinating despite established colonies still surviving
Describe the different types of lichens
Fruticose - most sensitive to SO2
Foliose - Also highly sensitive to SO2
Crustose - Mostly tolerant to SO2 but some are highly sensitive
Leprose - Mostly tolerant to SO2 but some highly sensitive
What type of lichen species has seen a rapid increase?
Nitrophilous lichens - Xanthoria parientina for example
Increases due to fertiliser drift and high amounts of nitrogen oxides given off by car exhausts
What is the OPAL air survey?
Surveys carried out by people around the country in which lichens and tar spot fungus are looked at to identify air quality.
How do lichens aid in testing heavy metals?
Lichens are highly efficient at absorbing metal ions’Dried lichens retain their metal content. This has allowed time-sequence monitoring of heavy metal deposition
Includes radioactive isotopes - After Chernobyl disaster in Poland Caesium increased by 165 times
What are the main points on the CBD?
Convention of Biological Diversity
- “living in harmony with nature”
- Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit (now 193)
- Dedicated to promoting sustainable development
3 Goals - Conservation of biodiversity, Sustainable use of components, Equitable sharing of genetic resources