Flashcards in Environmental, Professional, Imaging Deck (27):
What is the primary mechanism through which heat is dissipated? Mechanism through which heat is lost?
Low risk of heat illness = WBGT
Moderate risk of heat illness = WBGT from ___ to ___ F
High risk of heat illness = WBGT from ____ to ____F
ACSM recommends cancelling sporting events if the WBGT is >____ F
How does treatment differ for HYPERthermia and HYPOthermia treatments?
HYPER = rapid cooling is key to tx. HYPO = GRADUAL rewarming is key. Warming too quickly can lead to shock.
What are the 3 types of lightning strikes?
direct, contact, side flash
What is the 30 second-30 minute rule?
should actively seek shelter when the time from seeing lightning and hearing thunder is less than 30seconds. Should stay there for 30 minutes after seeing last flash.
What is acute mountain sickness?
constellation of symptoms in the context of recent gain in altitude (fatigue, weakness, dizziness, HA, N/V). Will resolve in a few days if no new ascent is made.
What is HAPE?
high altitude pulmonary edema. Starts with dyspnea with exercise and can progress to dyspnea with rest. Can even cause coma and death.
What is HACE?
high alt cerebral edema. Preceded by AMS. Similar symptoms, but pt will not be oriented, may be hallucinating, will be confused, ataxic; papilloedema and retinal hemorrhages present.
What does CT imaging excel at doing?
highlighting differences b/w bone and soft tissue
What is heat syncope?
LOC but core temp is normal
What is heat exhaustion?
PROFUSE sweating, fatigue, malaise, HA, N/V, tachycardia. STOP PLAY! possible transfer to ED
What is heat stroke?
body has physiologically shut down to compensate for heat production. DRY HOT SKIN, elevated core temp, AMS, ataxia, seizure. MEDICAL EMERGENCY.
Most effective cooling method for hyperthermia?
removal of clothing and immersion in ice water
Shivering + normal mental status = ____? No shivering + AMS = ____?
mild hypothermia (>90F), moderate (at least) hypothermia (
Difference b/w superficial and deep frostbite?
with superficial, palpation of superficial tissues will be firm, but deep will give way. Pt will have clear blisters. With deep frostbite, superficial and deep tissues are firm.. Pt will have hemorrhagic blisters.
What is trench foot?
Occurs when ambient temp is ABOVE freezing and pt's extremity is exposed to cold water over a prolonged period of time.
Frostbite tx? What should you not do (2)?
submerge in H20 100-108 degrees F; do not rub the area or attempt re-warming unless you are sure the area will not freeze again.
What is a segond fx? Associated with what?
proximal LATERAL tibial plateau fx. Highly associated with ACL tears.
What is the difference b/w T1 and T2 weighted MRI?
T2 (think H20) is well suited to highlight fluid containing structures
What is chillblains?
abnormal response to cold by blood vessels. Causes bumps, blisters, sores.
What is the flash to bang ratio?
Time from flash to hearing thunder. Take that number and divide by 5 to calculate the distance of the storm.
What is frostnip?
mild form of frosbite. Cardinal sign is blanching or whitening of skin. Simply apply pressure to the area (no rubbing!)
Where is the marrow edema pattern on MRI with ACL rupture?
lateral tibial plateau, lateral fem condyle