Flashcards in Environmental Sciences set 3 Deck (43)
What is taiga?
Taiga is boreal forest
How much of the earth is taiga/boreal forest?
11% is the biome of boreal forest
What is special about taiga?
It is the world's largest terrestrial (on land) biome
Where is boreal forest located?
50-60 degrees north
how are taiga and boreal forest different?
Taiga tends to be the northern area of the biome, and boreal forest is the southern part of the biome
Which part of the boreal biome is closer to tundra?
the northern area 'taiga' is closer to tundra
What is the boreal forest known for?
Boreal forest is known for its coniferous (cone bearing evergreen) trees and lots of lakes and rivers, bogs and marshes
What is the soil like in boreal forests?
the soil is not fertile (not good for growing plants)
Where are most nutrients in the boreal soil?
nutrients are at the surface of the soil in boreal biome
What do evergreen needles do to the soil?
they make the soil acidic
What is boreal biome weather like?
21 C in the summer to -54 in the winter, 200-600 mm of rain, and rarely droughts
How are plants adapted to this biome?
plants are adapted to cold and low nutrients, they have a shallow root system,
What is mycorrhizal fungi?
this is a fungus that helps the boreal plants to get nutrients
What does the southern boreal forest look like?
Thick trees with a closed canopy (where the branches all meet). In clearings there are shrubs and wild flowers.
What is usually on the forest floor in a boreal forest?
Moss tends to cover the forest floor
How is a more northern boreal forest different than one in the south?
The northern forests have trees more spread apart.
What is lichen woodland?
Lichen woodland is where the trees are spread apart
What are the boreal biome trees?
spruce, firs, hemlock, larch, pine, aspen, birch, willow (must be where we live!)
How are larch trees unusual?
They are found a lot in Siberia and their needles turn yellow and fall off in the winter
How are animals adapted to the boreal biome environment?
they can live in cold, caribou, reindeer, moose,elk, bison, lynx, wolf, black and brown bears, beavers, racoons and voles.
How do we know that humans have lived in boreal forests for a long time?
cave art from thousands of years ago
Why is human impact on the boreal forest increasing?
More people are living in the forest areas and using the forest as a source of natural resources, trees, oil and gas
How will climate change affect boreal forest biomes
warmer, drier conditions will cause trees to die and insects to increase.
What is the Canadian Boreal Initiative?
It is a group of people working to save the forests and offer sustainable solutions to keep them strong
What is arctic tundra?
Arctic tundra is the northern-most biome covering lands north of the arctic circle up to the polar ice cap and as south as the Hudson's Bay
How big is Arctic tundra biome?
1/5 of the earth's surface is arctic tundra, 5 million acres
Where does alpine tundra happen?
where does Antarctic tundra happen?
in Antarctica and surrounding islands
What is arctic tundra like as a biome?
vast, dry, rocky, lack of trees