Flashcards in Earth Sciences set 3 Deck (73):
What are minerals?
Minerals are inorganic (not living), naturally occurring substances made of repeating arrangements of atoms and molecules
What is the study of minerals called?
The study of minerals is called mineralogy
What are people who study minerals called?
What is the habit of a mineral?
The habit of a mineral is its crystal structure and shape
What is the hardness of a mineral?
The hardness is measured using the Mohs scale of mineral hardness
What is the luster of a mineral
the luster is the way it reflects light
What is a minerals translucency?
translucency is how much a mineral is see through.
what is a minerals cleavage?
cleavage is how easy a mineral is to break
What is a minerals density?
Density if a mass to volume ratio. How much does it way for a certain size
How many minerals have been found on earth?
4600 minerals have been accepted by the International Mineral Association (IMA)
What is the IMA?
The IMA is the international group who accepts and names new minerals
What is a rock?
A rock is made up of two or more minerals
What are rocks containing valuable minerals called?
Rocks with valuable minerals are called ore.
What are base metals?
Base metals are iron, copper and nickle
What are industrial minerals?
Industrial minerals are minerals that do not contain any metals
What are precious metals?
Precious metals are gold, iron, diamonds
What are the three kinds of rocks?
three kinds of rocks are igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic
What does igneous mean?
Igneous means ignis fire, or rocks that come from the cooling and solidifying of lava or magma
What is igneous rock that has formed below the surface of the earth?
Intrusive igneous rock.
How can you tell intrusive igneous rock?
The rock has large crystals of different types of minerals and you can see them with your naked eye
What is a common example of intrusive igneous rock?
Where does extrusive igneous rock form?
On the surface of the earth
because it has cooled quickly, what do extrusive igneous rock crystals look like?
they are small crystals,
what is a common extrusive igneous rock?
Obsidian, a clear glass-like rock
What are sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the build up of sediments at the bottom of the ocean, rivers or lakes
What are some examples of sedimentary rocks
conglomerate, shale, limestone, and sandstone.
Where are fossils only found?
What are metamorphic rocks?
Metamorphic rocks are made when an existing rock is somehow changed through a physical or chemical process
What are some examples of metamorphic rocks?
geneiss, marble, quartzite, and slate.
how can rocks change?
Rocks can change when under extreme heat or extreme pressure
what is the rock cycle?
The rock cyle is how rocks can change from one form to another igneous – sedimentary-metamorphic
List the first three steps in the rock cycle.
1. rocks begin as magma underground, 2. rock cools, 3. form igneous rocks.
List steps 4, 5 6 in the rock cycle
4. weathering is when the rock is exposed to rain, wind etc, 5. weathered rock (erosion) settles at the bottom of water body (sedimentation), 6. over time the layers are cemented together (lithified)
List steps 7, 8 , 9 in the rock cycle
7. layers are shifted and folded due to tectonics and get heat/pressure, 8. heat and pressure make metamorphic rock, 9. some rocks melt and become magma... cycle starts again.
What is weathering?
Weathering if the physical disintegration and chemical decomposition (breakdown) of rocks
what is the difference between physical weathering and chemical weathering?
Chemical weathering is a chemical reaction that changes the rock's chemical makeup, but physical is just breaking it up in smaller pieces.
How does water affect rock?
Water freezes and splits rocks in pieces.
What makes chemical change in rock?
Acid rain can dissolve some rocks.
What is erosion?
Erosion is the transport of rock particles, sediments and soils by the action of water, wind or glaciers.
What will eventually happen to eroded rock?
It will be deposited down stream in the river bed
What is a dramatic example of erosion?
Where did Canada's deadliest land slide happen?
In the Crowsnest pass (highway 3 in BC near the border with Alberta) April 29, 1903, Turtle mountain came down on the town killing 90 people. It's still a big rocky mess
what is mining?
mining is removing minerals from the earth
What is a mine?
a mine is the facility to remove the minerals.
What are the two types of mines?
there are surface mines and underground mines.
Why would you make a surface mine?
surface mines are for when the mineral is close to the surface, and they dig a big open pit.
Why use an underground mine?
an underground mine gets at mineral buried deep in the earth, through a series of tunnels
In both mines, how do they get the minerals?
they blast the rock to small pieces and load it onto trucks to the processing plant (mill), at the mill it is crushed and the minerals are taken out.
what are the four stages of a mine?
exploration, development, operation, closure/reclamation
What is exploration?
the first stage involves research, field exploration and analyzing information to find out where the minerals are.
Who does the exploration for a mine?
prospectors and scientists try to search for the rocks/minerals that are needed.
Do all mineral finds get to be mines.
No, many are left because there is not enough of the mineral
What is development?
Development is when they do further research and make a plan, deal with government, communities, permits etc
What is the operation stage?
The operation stage is when the mine is actively taking minerals from the earth
How long can a mine last?
The mine will last as long as there are still minerals coming out
What happens at closure and reclamation?
the mine is shut down, and as best as possible the land is returned to nature, removing buildings, replanting etc.
Where is the only place in Canada that has no mines?
Prince Edward Island has no mines!
How does Canada stand on the global mining market?
Canada is a leader in mining
How many minerals does Canada mine?
60, mostly base metals iron, nickel, lead zinc and copper
What is mined in almost everywhere in Canada?
Where is Uranium mined?
Where is iron or used to make steel mined?
Quebec, Newfoundland, Labrador
Who produces the most copper in Canada?
Who produces the most gold and nickel in Canada?
Who produces the most diamonds?
North West Territories
What is gold used for?
Jewelry, conducts electricity, electronics and computers.
What is copper used for?
conducts electricity and heat, power generation and transmission, cars, plumbing, cooking pots/pans
What is zinc used for?
zinc oxide is used for sunscreen, added to steel (galvanization) stops rusting
What are diamonds used for?
strong drill bits and in jewelry because it is very strong
When did Canada become a diamond producer?
In 198 Ekati Diamond mine opened 300 km north of Yellowknife.
How does Canada's diamond production compare to the world?
Canada is the 3rd largest diamond producer by value in the world!!
Why is uranium useful?
it can be used as a source of energy