Flashcards in Earth Sciences set 3 Deck (73)
What are minerals?
Minerals are inorganic (not living), naturally occurring substances made of repeating arrangements of atoms and molecules
What is the study of minerals called?
The study of minerals is called mineralogy
What are people who study minerals called?
What is the habit of a mineral?
The habit of a mineral is its crystal structure and shape
What is the hardness of a mineral?
The hardness is measured using the Mohs scale of mineral hardness
What is the luster of a mineral
the luster is the way it reflects light
What is a minerals translucency?
translucency is how much a mineral is see through.
what is a minerals cleavage?
cleavage is how easy a mineral is to break
What is a minerals density?
Density if a mass to volume ratio. How much does it way for a certain size
How many minerals have been found on earth?
4600 minerals have been accepted by the International Mineral Association (IMA)
What is the IMA?
The IMA is the international group who accepts and names new minerals
What is a rock?
A rock is made up of two or more minerals
What are rocks containing valuable minerals called?
Rocks with valuable minerals are called ore.
What are base metals?
Base metals are iron, copper and nickle
What are industrial minerals?
Industrial minerals are minerals that do not contain any metals
What are precious metals?
Precious metals are gold, iron, diamonds
What are the three kinds of rocks?
three kinds of rocks are igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic
What does igneous mean?
Igneous means ignis fire, or rocks that come from the cooling and solidifying of lava or magma
What is igneous rock that has formed below the surface of the earth?
Intrusive igneous rock.
How can you tell intrusive igneous rock?
The rock has large crystals of different types of minerals and you can see them with your naked eye
What is a common example of intrusive igneous rock?
Where does extrusive igneous rock form?
On the surface of the earth
because it has cooled quickly, what do extrusive igneous rock crystals look like?
they are small crystals,
what is a common extrusive igneous rock?
Obsidian, a clear glass-like rock
What are sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the build up of sediments at the bottom of the ocean, rivers or lakes
What are some examples of sedimentary rocks
conglomerate, shale, limestone, and sandstone.
Where are fossils only found?
What are metamorphic rocks?
Metamorphic rocks are made when an existing rock is somehow changed through a physical or chemical process
What are some examples of metamorphic rocks?
geneiss, marble, quartzite, and slate.