Environmental Topics Flashcards Preview

PBDII Test I > Environmental Topics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental Topics Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

what are the 5 major causes of childhood mortality that are preventable

Infections:

pneumonia

diarrhea: loss of electrolytes, dehydration, death, giardia, e.coli, campylobactor, rotovirus

malaria

measles

neonatal

2

what about climate change contributes to health....

look in robbins

3

barium acetate

poison!

4

phase 1 reactions

hydrolysis
reduction
oxidation

5

Cytochorome P450 enzyme (CYP)

digests toxins

great variation in CYP acivity among individuals

6

phase II reactions

glucuronidation
sulfation
methylation
conjugations

7

environmental pollution

Table 9-1!

outdoor
- ozone
--particulates


indoor-
-CO--> chronic exposure, not symptomatic until 30-40%, cherry red cheeks
-radon
-formaldehyde

8

lead toxicity in a child

low levels -- still have significant effects (decreased IQ)

higher levels- death at 150

9

lead toxicity in an adult

not as harmful effects in adult

bone--> radio dense deposits
CNS- peripheral neuropathies, encephalopathy, mental deterioration
Blood--> anemias, basophilic stippling

10

mercury toxicity

intracellular glutathione is the protective mechanism for this toxicity

11

arsenic

found in herbs and certain ground waters

interferes with oxidative phosphorylation

GI
CNS
Cardiovascular effects

cancer in almost any tissues, mostly lung and skin

chronic exposure:
skin cancers (squamous and basal cell carcinomas)
lichenation
hyperpigmentation- axilla, soles of feet (not on sun exposed surfaces)

12

cadmium toxicity

causes skin changes, irritation, itching

overtime can be toxic

obstructive lung disease

Itai-Itai disease--> bony defects with renal disease

13

ozone

At risk:
healthy adults and children
lung inflammation
athletes, outdoor workers

decreased lung function
increased airway reactivity
decreased exercise capacity

14

xenobiotics

exogenous environmental chemicals

Cytochrome P-450 enzyme system - detoxifies or activates xenobiotics and both apparently generate ROS

15

table 9-2
human diseases associated with occupationl exposures
industrial/agricultural

look at it!

carbon tetrachloride

benzene- gasoline

minearl/dusts/ pneumoconioses - coal, silica, asbestos (higher bronchogeneic carcinomas, mesotheliomas) beryllium

vinyl chloride- plastics, causes angiosarcoma of the liver

phthalates- plastic


DDT- very effective against mosquito carrying malaria

16

tobacco effects

tables 9-3
9-4

8 years difference in life span b/w smokers and nonsmokers

most common exogenous cause of human cancers

strongly linked to development of atherosclerosis

cessation of smoking greatly reduces, within 5 years, the overall mortality and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.

lung cancer mortality decreases by 21 % within 5 years, but the excess risk lasts for 30 years

17

alcohol

chronic effects:
liver
GI/esophagus- esophageal varices (Portal HTN)
Brain- wernickes, korsakoff
heart- dialted cardiomyopathies
pancreas
fetal alcohol syndrome
nutrient depletion- depletes B vitamins, vitamin A

alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde---> further to acetate

18

oral contraceptives

venous thromboembolism
cancer ?
hepatic adenomas (over long periods of time on these)


increased risk if there is prothrombin or factor V Leiden mutations

prevent ovulation or prevent implantation


19

acetaminophen

widely used

LD50 is large (point at which 50% of people die)

liver effects- necrosis, treated with anasylcysteine

overdoses

20

ASA (aspirin)

bleeding

precipitates allergy/bronchospasm

21

Hormone replacement therapy

estrogen/progesterones

22

cocaine

figure 9-15

1/2 life of cocaine is 40 minutes (very short)
so there is no safe dose of cocaine

block dopamine reuptake:
euphoria, paranoia, hyperthermia (hyperpyrexia)

Block norepinephrine reuptake:
HTN, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarct, cerebral hemorrhage and infarct

23

heroin

-morphine is a synthetic form of this

24

amphetamines

sudafed is used to make this

produces euphoria followed by crash

25

marijuana

medical marijuana:
nausea, pain, glaucoma, appetite issues (Cancer cachexia indications)

ingested types:
potent, hallucinations

26

look at table 9-5

see especially pulmonary and CNS adverse drug reactions of things that you are prescribing

27

thermal injuries

look at! tables

28

primary insufficiency

not getting enough food.

29

secondary insufficiency

infection
acute/chronic illnesses
chronic alcoholism
malabsorption

elderly population

30

protein-energy malnutrition

BMI less than 16

Marasmus-
- somatic protein compartment (striated muscle)
decreased T cells--> viruses, parasites, fungal infections
m-melting, wasting

Kwashiorkor
-visceral protein component diminshed
-low albumin levels, ascites, protuberant bellies
-edema, skin, hair changes

31

anorexia

highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder- body image dysmorphism

amenorrhea

hypokalemia

this is starving

32

bulimia

binging/perging

hypokalemia

look at back of their hands
-scarring on the back of the hand from teeth

33

hypokalemia secondary to anorexia and bulimia cause what?

muscle cramping

GI tract shuts down, motility/peristalsis

cardiac arrhythmia's- cardiac arrest

34

table 9-9, table 9-10 (trace elements)

Vitamin Deficiencies

what to know:
emphasize deficiency states

ADEK: fat soluble vitamins
-stored in the liver
-Vitamin A has toxic manifestations
-Vitamin E is related to clotting

A- retinoids

D- activated form best regarded as a steroid hormone
-rickets
-osteomalacia
-toxicity? RDA is low for vitamin D

Vitamin- C
-scurvy

35

beriberi

know

36

wernicke/Korsakoff syndromes

know

37

pellagra

know

38

vitamin A deficiency

keratomalacia
corneal ulcer
bitot spots

squamous metaplasia in the lung

kidney stones

cancers?

39

obesity

BMI greater than 30

leptin- elaborated when you are full, hormone to QUIT eating

adiponectin- secreting to cause fat-burning, utilization of fat tissue

adipose tissue
-proinflammatory adipocytes

gut hormones
-ghrelin - stimulates appetite

40

what are the general consequences of obesity

cancer- esophageal adenocarcinomas

atherosclerosis

cardiovascular disease

41

3 white devils

processed sugar
white flour
white milk

related to high incidence of type II DM

-carbohydrates