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Flashcards in Epidemiology Deck (14):

What do chi-square tests analyze?

Compare proportions of categorized outcomes --> 2x2 table


ANOVA is used to compare what?

3+ variables


Meta-analysis is used to do what?

Pool data from several studies to do an analysis having a relatively big statistical power


What is hazards ratio?

Ratio of event occurring in the treatment group vs. non-treatment (control) group.

> 1 = event more likely to happen with TREATMENT group


What is PPV?
How do you calculate it?

Proportion of subject with (+) test and ACTUALLY have the disease



What is NPV?
How do you calculate it?

Proportion of subjects with a (-) test that DO NOT have the disease



What does correlation coefficient (r) represent?

Strength and direction (positive, negative) of linear association between 2 variables

Closer to either end (-1, +1) = stronger the relationship

E.g. --> r = -0.25
As one variable increases, the other decreases


What helps control for cofounders during the design stage of a study?



What is the p-value?

When is it significant?

Probability of observing a given result by chance, assuming the null hypothesis is true

If the association b/w exposure and outcome is statistically significant (e.g. NOT chance alone)


What is relative risk (RR)?

(Risk of an outcome in the exposed group) / (risk of outcome in unexposed group)

RR = 1 (NO association b/w exposure and outcome)

RR > 1 (exposure associated with INCREASED risk of disease)



How are confidence interval and p-value related?

CI must NOT contain the null (expected) value (or RR)

When 95% CI does NOT contain the null value (RR), this gives a p-value if it does, the study is NOT statistically significant


What is Sensitivity?

# of patients correctly testing positive for disease / total # of patients with disease (TP / [TP + FN])
*More sensitive = more likely to be TN (helps rule OUT)

*Good screening tests --> help minimize FNs


What is Specificity?

# of patients correctly testing negative for a disease / total # of patients without disease (TN / [TN + FP])
*More specific = (+) tests are more likely to be TP

*Confirmatory tests --> minimize FPs


How do case control studies differ from retrospective cohort studies?

Case control = determine outcome first, then look for associated risk factors

Retrospective cohort = ascertain risk factor exposure, then determine outcome