Epidemiology, Community Assessment, & Health Program Planning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epidemiology, Community Assessment, & Health Program Planning Deck (30)
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1

the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states in specified populations and the application of this study to control health problems

Epidemiology

2

Epidemiology is a tool for improving public health and population health. Includes:

-Causation of disease

-Natural history of disease

-Health status of a population

Burden of disease
Resource allocation
Policy and health programs

-Intervention evaluation

3

Types of Epidemiology

-Descriptive

-Analytic

4

-focus is on frequency and patterns of health events in groups

-examines “patterns of disease”
person, place, and time

-Provides data information and insight into characteristics of a group

Descriptive Epidemiology

5

Used to identify associations b/w risk factors and a disease

Analytic Epidemiology

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Epidemiologic Model

-Relationship among agent, host, and environment
-Strength & virulence of an agent
-Host susceptibility
-Environmental conditions

7

Number of new cases of a disease, or condition developed within a specified time period

Most sensitive indicator of changing health (captures fluctuations of disease in populations)

Particularly useful in detecting short-term acute disease changes

Incidence Rate

8

Incidence Rate Formula

# new cases / total population at risk x K

9

Number of cases of a specific disease or, condition at a particular point in time

Influenced by rate of new cases, number of existing cases, effective treatments, and death

Measure of the burden of disease

Used to plan for allocation of resources

Prevalence Rate

10

Prevalence Rate formula

# of existing cases / # of total population x K

11

Incidence provides an ______ __ ____ for developing a disease

estimate of risk

12

Prevalence provides a measure of the ______ __ _______ (how many people have been affected)

Burden of disease

13

action taken to reduce or eliminate the onset, causes or, complications of disease.

Prevention

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-limit incidence of disease
-eliminate determinants, control exposure, and promote protective factors

Primary

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Early detection & intervention

Secondary

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improve function, minimize adverse impact
treatment & rehabilitation

Tertiary

17

Group of people who share something in common, who interact with one another, who may exhibit a commitment to one another

Community

18

Group of people who have at least one thing in common, who may/may not interact with one another.

Population

19

Subgroups or populations that have common characteristics or concerns.

Aggregate

20

Purpose - to determine the health status of an identified community/population

Includes - collection and analysis of health status data and other determinants of health

Final outcome - community profile that includes a community's perspective on the strengths, deficits, and health related needs of their community

Community Assessment

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Steps to a Community Health Assessment

-Identification of a target community

-Selection of organizing framework (Community Assessment Wheel)

-Data Collection

-Data Analysis

-Community Nursing Diagnosis

22

Community Core

-The people
History, demographics, ethnicity,
values & beliefs

-Major components of the core
o History
o Demographics
o Household types
o Marital status
o Vital statistics
o Values and beliefs
o Religion

23

Subsystems

Physical environment
Health & social services
Economics
Safety & transportation
Politics & government
Communication
Education
Recreation

24

Data Collection

Windshield survey

Observations

Informant interviews

Secondary data

Constructed surveys

Focus groups

Community forms

25

U.S. Census data (demographics)

Local, county & state health departments (morbidity & mortality)

Historical accounts (websites, chamber of commerce, archives)

Crime statistics (FBI, police department)

Vital statistics (state department of health)

Community & local newspapers

Research studies on population risks

Minutes from community meetings (city hall, websites, chamber of commerce)

Examples of Secondary Data

26

Focuses the diagnosis on a community

Composed of inference statements that include stressors & strengths

Composed of the following:
-a potential risk or health problem
-the affected population or community
-an etiology or “related to” portion
-the signs & symptoms or “as evidenced by” portion

Community Nursing Diagnosis

27

Broad statement that describes the expected effects of a program

Specify a health problem or risk behavior

Identify the target population

Short, concise, clearly understood, and framed positively

Provide a framework for objectives

Program Planning: Goals

28

SMART

Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time-phased`

29

Verification that you are doing what you said you would do

Identification of strengths & weaknesses for improvement

Produce data or vary results that can be used in policy & funding decisions

Documentation of effectiveness and duplication elsewhere

The "Why" Behind Program Evaluation

30

"When the cook tastes the soup,
that’s formative.”

"When the guests taste the soup, that’s summative."