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Cell: Exam 3 > Epigenetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epigenetics Deck (30):
0

Early 1990s study unlocking chemical structure of genes in humans

Human Genome Project

1

Some genes to be expressed from only one parental allele while silencing the other

Genomic imprinting

2

DNA Methylation, Histone modification, RNAs

Genomic imprinting

3

Happy puppet children

Angelman Syndrome

4

Deletion of chromosome 15 in mothers

Angelman Syndrome

5

Gene UBE3A located at chromoseome 15q11-13

Angelman Syndrome

6

Floppy at birth, insatiable appetite, fatty

Prader-Willi Syndrome

7

Deletion of chromosome 15 from father

Prader-Willi Syndrome

8

Deletion of proximal arm of chromosome 15

Prader-Willi Syndrome

9

Attaching methyl groups each with one Carbon atom and 3 hydrogen atoms

DNA Methylation

10

Turns off or silences genes

DNA Methylation

11

Turns off agouti gene

Folic acid (B-12)

12

All chemical compounds that have been added to the entirety of one's DNA (genome) as way to regulate activity (expression)

Epigenetics

13

Above the genome

Epigenome

14

_____ as hardware ______ as software

Genome; Epigenome

15

Remains as cells divide and sometimes inerited

Epigenomic modifications

16

Shows that behavior of one subject can change gene expression in a different subject

Experience changes epigenome

17

Does epigenetic changes accumulate?

Yes

18

"It's not the genes that the mother brings into the game, it's the behavior the mom that has an impact on offspring years after the mom is gone"

Yes, experience changes epigenomes

19

Encode proteins for regulation. Inactivation of such genes can lead to cancer

Tumor Suppressor Gene

20

Most commonly inactivated gene in human cancers

TP53

21

Transcription factor that stops abnormal cell growth and induces apoptosis in cells with sustained DNA damage

TP53

22

"Good" genes that turn to cancer cells when mutated

Proto-oncogenes

23

"Bad" genes

Oncogenes

24

Turning on and off is a way of gettig epigenetic disease

True

25

Cytidine nucleoside analog that bind to DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in an irreversible, covalent manner

Decitabine (DAC)

26

Sequestration of DNMTs prevent maintenance of methylation state of DNA, leading to _________________

DNA hypomethylation

27

What contributes to anticancer effects of these drugs?

Re-expression of aberrantly methylated genes involved in normal cell cycle control; Differentiation; Apoptotic pathways

28

Famine might affect people almost a century later

Oerkalix study

29

Study focusing on experience changing epigenomes

Szyf and Meaney Rat Studies