Flashcards in Epilepsy and Neurology Deck (13):
Whats the minimum no. of seizures you must have had to be diagnosed with epilepsy?
Status epilepticus: Def, Mx (APLS algorithm)
Sizure longer than 5m or when sizures occur one after the other with no recovery between.
Highest in children and >60s
70% of children with epilepsy beginning in infancy with expererience at least 1 episode.
If yes: IV Lorazepam 0.1 mg/kg
If no: Midazolam buccal [6-12m, 2.5mg, 1-5yrs 5mg, [ or rectal diazepam [dose]
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in which PM exam does not reveal a toxicological or anatomical reason
Non-epileptic attack disorder. Episodes of change in behaviour or movement, not caused by primary change in electrical activity. Movements are varied and the attacks
DDx/Ix for seizures?
Hypoglycaemia (blood glucose)
CNS Infection e.g. meningitis, encephalitis, TB, malaria (raised temp/WCC)
Trauma (signs of raised ICP, child abuse)
Drugs (hx of recreational drug use)
15% of absence seizure epilepsy go on to this
Presents with 3 types: Tonic clonic, absence, myoclonic
Gen tonic clonic
Clonic seizures - should be symmetrical (if asymmetrical pattern query NEAD)
May get tongue biting, incontinence
Post ictal confusion (want to sleep after)
What is most common cause of neonatal seizures?
HIE (hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy)
Intracranial haemorrhage, metabolic disturbances (e.g. hypoglycaemia)
Video, ECG, MRI or CT brain (for haemorrhage in resus), EEG has limitations is not first line and often not diagnostic
Epilepsy syndromes (the four syndromes that she said to learn)
-West syndrome: infantile spasms, usually 3 to 18/12 MUST BE TREATED quickly OTHERWISE--> DISABILITY. Treated with steroids/IM ACTH.
Childhood period epilepsy syndromes:
-Childhood absence epilepsy
-Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes
-juvenile myoclonic (sodium valproate - TERATOGENIC 10x risk) - n.b although this is called JME this is just about the age of onset. You can be 70 years old with JME.
Can you drive with epilepsy?
Yes if you've been seizures free for 1 day
Mr Cook - clinic
Neurological disorder caused by a non-progresive brain injury or malformation that occurs while the child's brain is under development. Primarily affects movement and coordination.