Flashcards in EQ Deck (87):
1st Octave Range
40 - 80hz
1st Octave Center Frequency
1st Octave Characteristics
Power, Energy, Kick, and Punch. Energy of kick. Trim bass around thump of kick. Too much energy can make it sound bad on large monitors but good on small.
2nd Octave Range
80 - 250hz
2nd Octave Center Frequency
100 / 200hz
2nd Octave Characteristics
Main Energy, Fullness, and Intelligibility.
3rd Octave Range
250 - 500hz
3rd Octave Center Frequency
300 / 400hz
3rd Octave Characteristics
Presence, Clarity, and Boxiness
4th Octave Range
500 - 200kHz
4th Octave Center Frequency
800 / 1.5kHz
4th Octave Characteristics
Cuts, Sensitive, and Horns
5th Octave Range
2 - 4kHz
5th Octave Center Frequency
5th Octave Characteristics
Presence, Midrange, and Projection
6th Octave Range
4 - 6kHz
6th Octave Center Frequency
6th Octave Characteristics
Focal Point, and Distinct
7th Octave Range
6 - 20kHz
7th Octave Center Frequency
7kHz / 10kHz / 15kHz
7th Octave Characteristics
Presence, Brilliance, and Air
Boosting the fundamental makes the 1. _________ and also affects the 2. __________.
1. pitch louder
2. character of the sound
We must always remember the Fletcher Munson curve why?
Because our ears hear levels in certain bands of frequencies different than others. Ex: 1 - 5kHz boosts sound louder than in other frequencies.
As volume increases our perceived loudness grows ______.
When you mix too loud your mixes will sound worse when they are what?
At a quieter volume.
Mix a little louder than what?
What should you do after mixing?
Listen back at quieter levels, louder levels, and then on headphones.
Why use ears instead of eyes?
Eyes can trick you.
Linear Phase EQ helps with what?
Eliminating phasing issues.
Is cutting or boosting better and why?
Cutting is better than boosting because boosting adds more phasing artifacts.
Linear EQ is best when used for what?
The tighter the Linear EQ Q, the more what?
Ringing or echoes
The lower the frequency of the incoming signal, the longer the linear phase eq will what?
Linear EQ should not be used on what?
Drums or bass.
Mix using what type of eq?
Minimal phase EQ
Wide cuts 1. _______ character while narrow boosts 2. ______ it.
Cuts should be done using a 1. ________ eq using a 2. ______ Q;
Using shelving filters on low end can end up causing what two problems?
Muddiness and lack of separation of instruments
Shelving overshoot ________ frequencies just before the boost.
1st Octave Tips
1. Trim bass out of this area around thump of kick.
2. Too much energy in this area can make it sound bad on large monitors but good on small.
2nd Octave Tips
Cuts help with intelligibility while boosts an octave wide can help pull out instruments from mix. Too much energy creates muddy bottom end. Cuts at 100, boosts at 200.
3rd Octave Tips
Boosts too much here can unsettle the high frequency instruments and make them sound muddled.
Cuts reduces boxiness while boosts can affect clarity.
4th Octave Tips
Small boosts can pull percussive instruments out in the mix.
5th Octave Tips
Can create ear fatigue as our hearing is centered around 3 - 3.5kHz.
6th Octave Tips
If there are too many instruments in this area you lose focus. Instead only boost the instrument that is the focal point of the mix.
7th Octave Tips
Use a good eq in this area to avoid aliasing.
EQ should be the ______ after volume, panning, compression, reverb, etc.
We should use a high Q on cuts because:
low or wide q cuts sound unnatural to our ears.
What trick can we use to identify frequencies?
Using a wide Q, boost the signal by 15 decibels. Then starting at the top of the frequency range, sweep down through the frequencies. When we find the correct frequency, thin down the q till its only affecting the central frequency. Then lower the Q till the frequencies to either side are barely creeping in. Finally slowly apply a cut until it's just gently removing the nasty frequency.
We should place our instruments in what?
What is EQ bracketing?
Where you apply a low pass and high pass filter on an instrument effectively only letting the necessary frequency 'bracket' to be heard making space for other instruments.
We should apply EQ bracketing on what?
Complimentary curving is what?
When you have two instruments sharing the same octave and you apply a cut to one and boost at the same frequency on the other.
You can make ______ cuts when making room or removing instrument masking.
You should prioritize your instruments at the start of the what?
When the focal point of a mix goes out we need to what?
Use automation to shift the focal point to another sound. Very important in tech house, minimal, and techno.
When boosting stick to around 1. ______ boost and an 2. _______ of bandwidth to add color.
Depending on the fletcher munson curve, we can cut both sides of a center frequency without what?
boosting the frequency causing it to stick out more.
Generally compression should come _______ EQ.
You can use EQ before compression if you want to 1. _______ rogue frequencies, and afterwards to 2. _______.
2. enhance the signal.
EQ can be used to control the ______ of a reverb.
It is important to take into account what when EQing?
We must be aware of what when EQing?
That the notes will move which will cause the fundamental to change.
What does shifting fundamental result in?
Tonal quality becomes uneven as the fundamental is no longer affected by eq.
When we boost the fundamental directly it results in uneven tonality which results in what?
The instrument disappearing and reappearing throughout the mix. Bright in some notes and dull in others.
Uneven tonality can cause issues with what?
Compression and volume.
How to get around uneven tonality?
Adjust the bandwidth to cover the range of the tonality. Basically adjusting to cover a full octave.
What does 'Q' mean?
Low Q equals what?
Wider, low quality eq
High Q equals what?
Very thin, high quality eq.
Most instruments composed have a range of what?
1 Octave or less. Within 7 notes.
We can tune the EQ to what?
To the center frequency with the Q set to an Octave wide.
Can we ever get the EQ bandwidth perfect and does it matter?
No we can't, but it doesn't matter because we are trying to get the instrument to sit well in the mix not individually.
What Q is a good starting point and why?
1.4 because we measure the Q by going 3db into the boost or cut of the central frequency.
Under 3dB then then bandwidth is what?
Bandwidth will produce very different results based on what?
The central frequency and our non linear hearing
We hear different bandwidths louder and quieter. A 232Hz Q cut at 500Hz will be what compared to a cut at 2kHz?
The cut at 500Hz will be louder and wider than a cut at 2kHz despite both being 232Hz.
What do we do to the frequency to get the note in the next Octave?
Double the frequency. EX: 440Hz A will be 880Hz.
We use bandwidth or Q to give us the same what?
Q: .7 = ?
Q: 1 = ?
1 1/3 Octaves
Q: 1/4 = ?
Q: 2.8 = ?
Q = what equation?
Q = (CF / (Top Frequency - Bottom Frequency))
Center the EQ at the octave of the instrument and then use hi cuts and low cuts to remove what?
Unecessary information around the fundamental frequency octave.
Shelves need to be used carefully why?
High boosts can increase noise as we're boosting all frequencies above the cutoff.