EQ2- What Are The Impacts Of Globalisation For Countries , Different Groups Of People And Cultures And The Physical Environment Flashcards Preview

Geography Topic 3 - Globalisation > EQ2- What Are The Impacts Of Globalisation For Countries , Different Groups Of People And Cultures And The Physical Environment > Flashcards

Flashcards in EQ2- What Are The Impacts Of Globalisation For Countries , Different Groups Of People And Cultures And The Physical Environment Deck (47)
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1

Define the term global shift

Is the movement of manufacturing from europe and the USA to many asian countries

2

What location will the next global shift be towards

Has been a steady overall growth of FDI into the Middle East and North Africa, where they have large quantities of valuable resources

3

What factors accelerated the global shift towards Asia

Individual Asian countries, like India and China , adopted an open door policy to allow overseas companies to access their markets

TNC’s seeked new areas for manufacturing (China) and the offshoring of services (call centres in India)

FDI began to flow into the emerging Asian countries

4

Explain the benefits of global shift for China (4)

Infrastructure-Has the worlds longest motorway network, high speed rail system linking all the major provinces, has 250 airports making it accessible globally

Poverty- over 300 million chinese people are middle class, sales of consumer items has risen, number of people in extreme poverty has decreased from 84% in 1980 to 10% in 2016

Urban incomes- have risen by 10% each year since 2005, averaging $9000. Workers in urban areas are paid more than if they remained in rural areas.

Education and training- education is free and compulsory for children between 6 and 15, with 94% of over 15’s literate. 7.2 million people have graduated for university leading to a more skilled workforce.

5

Explain the drawbacks of global shift for China (6)

Loss of farmland - Increased loss of farmland since 2000 with land the size of Belgium polluted with metals.

Informal housing- increase due to high prices of homes. Led to expanded housing in villages and farmland being illegally developed for housing.

Pollution and health- 70% of China’s rivers and lakes are polluted , with 100 cities suffering from extreme water shortages. Air pollution killed 4400 people a day, due to Asthma and cancer

Land degradation- rapid urbanisation and industrialisation has meant 40% of farmland is suffering degradation. Has led to deforestation and intensive grazing.

Resource exploitation- China’s resources cannot keep up with demand, led to resource exploitation in Ecuador, Brazil and Venezuela for China’s consumption.

Loss of biodiversity- China’s vertebrates have declined by 50% since 1970 due to habitat loss and the degradation of natural environments

6

Define and explain Deindustrialisation

The decline of regionally important manufacturing industries. The decline can be measured in terms of workforce numbers, output and production measures and has significant impacts on inner city areas

7

Explain Deindustrialisation that occurred in Detroit, Michigan

Had a thriving car manufacturing industry, including Ford.
Global shift resulted in dereliction, depopulation, crime and high unemployment.
Lost a quarter of its population, with reduced tax revenue leading to the city becoming bankrupt
1/3 of families in the city have an income below the poverty level with the highest murder rate.

8

Explain Deindustrialisation that occurred in Leicester

Over 30,000 people worked in Leicester’s textile mills.
Demand for extra factory workers saw Indian and Pakistani’s move to the inner city of Leicester
Overseas competition meant cheaper clothes were available from Asia, manufacturing jobs in Leicester were lost , leading to Deindustrialisation

9

Explain the negative effects of global shift on High Income Countries

Dereliction and contamination :
Previous industrial land in Leicester , Sheffield and Glasgow were left abandoned or derelict . Most derelict land was contaminated from previous dumping of chemical waste and other waste disposal.

Unemployment, depopulation and deprivation:
The 1980’s saw major declines in the population of UK inner cities. Many people on low incomes or unemployed move to inner city areas, leading to pockets of deprivation.

10

Name three countries the UK has a trade deficit with and explain why

China- telecom equipment, clothing and electrical equipment

Germany- cars, gold and petroleum

Netherlands- raw materials, machinery and chemicals

11

Name three countries the UK has a trade surplus with and why

USA- Cars, medicine, petroleum

Canada- electronic equipment, medical equipment

Brazil- pharmaceuticals, chemicals and electrical

12

Define a megacity

Is a city with a population of over 10 million

13

What has been the trend of megacities in the past, present and future

The growth of megacities has continued, in 1950 there was 2 and now there are 32

Most megacities are seen in Asia, although in Africa rapid urbanisation is likely to take place

By 2030 over 9% of the world’s population will live in megacities

14

What is a world city (hub city)

Give examples

Is a city with a major influence on finance, law, political strength, innovation and ICT.

Tokyo, London and New York are world cities

15

Define hyper-urbanisation

Why is New Delhi experiencing it

Occurs where urbanisation and population growth happens so fast that authorities are unable to provide basic needs

A high birth rate and low death rate has seen a 40% population growth between 2010 and 2020. Also has a fast rate of rural to urban migration.

16

Summarise the push and pull factors that create rural to urban migration and urban growth

Push
Rural poverty
Lack of services
Low pay
Drought and flooding
Lack of opportunities
Lack of investment

Pulls
Better quality of life
Better services (education, health and entertainment)
Better paid jobs
Better opportunities
Better housing
Growth in outsourcing jobs

17

Summarise the social challenges of rapid urban growth in New Delhi

Low tax offered to TNC’s means government struggle to provide housing and education

Private companies who provide water and healthcare will target wealthier areas, restricting poorer areas

Sprawling squatter settlements due to uncontrollable urban growth

Rise in homelessness due to the high cost of housing

18

Summarise the environmental challenges of rapid urban growth in New Delhi

High air pollution (Is India’s 5th largest killer)

Rapid growth in vehicles (26 million by 2025)

Sewage pollution, chemical dumping from factories and fuel spillages

19

Describe the pattern of flows in international migration

Explain the reasons for these flows

Most occur from developing countries to developed countries

Most occur due to the improved quality of life, better pay, better access to services and better job opportunities in developed countries

20

What is an elite migrant

What has their effect been in London

Is the flow of skilled and wealthy migrants , usually experts in finance and investment

Foreign buyers were involved in 82% of property deals in Central London. High demand for property has led to price inflation, making it too expensive for most residents.

21

What are low wage migrants

What effects have they had on Qatar and UAE

Are migrants who are recruited for their manual labour skills , are paid a low wage

Migrants make up 90% of the UAE workforce, contributing towards building high end infrastructure. Migrants entry visa’s are tied to their job, so are at risk of being deported . Only earn $4 a day and 964 wirkers died in 2014 in work related incidents

22

What are the advantages and disadvantages of migration for the host country

A
Receives skilled foreign workers
Fills skill shortages in key areas
Can sustain a growing leisure and tourism sector
Some migrants are entrepreneurs and set up successful businesses in host countries

D
Experience pressure on housing, healthcare and school places
Human rights issues on forced labour, can cause conflict with other countries

23

What are the advantages and disadvantages of migration for the source country

A
Experiences reduced unemployment as people migrate to find jobs elsewhere
Earn remittance payments, sent home by overseas migrants
Remittance payments can be used to build homes or invest in local business

D
Loses its most skilled and dynamic workers, in key industries (doctors and nurses) and those with business skills
Suffers an imbalanced population , young workers leave
Risk of abuse and death of migrants, can lead to debt and poverty of people in source country
Closure of urban services and entertainment due to a lack of young adults

24

How has Cuba changed in recent years due to globalisation

Cuban government declared Cuba a communist state in 1960, resulting in its isolation from the western capitalist world for 50 years.

A reduction in subsidies from the USSR saw free enterprise businesses set up in the country and accept foreign capital, through tourism.

Cuba allowed its people to set up their own private business and take out loans

Cuba adopted a open door policy leading to relationships with the USA and state owned businesses privatised.

However its led to a growing inequality , with a difference in wage between the working population and successful entrepreneurs

25

Define Cultural erosion

Is the loss of language and culture as a result of an open door policy

26

Define cultural diffusion

Is the spread of one culture to another by various means

27

Define and explain capitalism

An economic system based on private ownership of investment capital and wealth production, where goods and services are sold for profit. Also known as free enterprise and market economy

28

Define and explain communism

A socio-economic system where the land and all property is owned by the state , so that every person contributes and receives according to their needs. The state controls or owns most resources , banks and media

29

How has British culture been influenced by other cultures

British culture has been transformed by decades of inwards migration. There are many different cultures, religions and food cuisines from all over the world . Television and media is largely imported from countries across the world

30

How has cultural change contributed towards the change in global media (TV, News and Music)

Ownership of global broadcasting film and music industries are becoming concentrated under the control of large TNC’s.

Common language is starting to erode cultural diversity, leading to a global homogenisation of culture, where everyone becomes the same.