Flashcards in EQ3- What Are The Consequences Of Globalisation For Global Development And The Physical Environment And How Should Different Players Respond To Its Challenges Deck (28)
How is Gross national income used to measure development
Is a measure of a country’s wealth. Is the value of goods and services earned by a country, including overseas earnings.
When measuring economic development why is:
- Per capita
- Purchase power parity (PPP)
US$- is the most stable currency in the world, so easier to compare development over a number of years
Per capita- gives data on average per person, puts population into perspective
PPP- Reflects the cost of living in a country by showing spending power
What is the economic sector balance as a measure of economic development and how does it change as a country develops
Shows the percentage of contribution of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors to GNI.
As countries develop there is a decline in the primary industry and a growth in the secondary industry
Describe the differences in the Lorenz curve between Bangladesh, Brazil and the UK
The curve is a measure of the distribution of income in a country to measure inequality.
Bangladesh has the most equal distribution of income, where 20% of the population earn 10% of the nations income. This is more equal compared to the UK , where 20% of the population earn 5% of the nations income, and Brazil, where 20% of the population earn 2% of the nations income
What is HDI, how is it measured
The human development index provides a measure of life expectancy , education and GDP for every country. Shows how people benefit from economic growth, put into a value between 0 (low) and 1 (high).
What is the Social Progress Index (SPI) and why may it be a better measure of development than GDP
Is a measure of the wellbeing of society, everyones access to basic needs and services, education, health and a sustainable environment.
GDP does not take into account the environment, happiness or the community.
Why does the environment decline as countries develop to emerging
The more a country develops the more infrastructure built, technology used, vehicles used and roads built, which are all linked to energy production, industrialised processes and road transport. These processes all produce pollutants which worsen the air quality and cause environmental decline.
Why would a countries pollution levels start to decline when they reach a high level of development
They start to focus more on the environment and reducing air pollution rather than having a sole focus on economic development. They start to control vehicle emissions, record air quality and outsource manufacturing
Explain the income inequality within a country like China
Incomes are not usually distributed evenly within a country, higher income is concentrated where economic development occurs
In China, the East has the highest incomes, due to most economic development occurring there and it mainly being secondary and tertiary jobs . In the West incomes are below average due to most jobs being in the primary sector, with high levels of poverty.
What are the social and economic disadvantages of income inequality
Can cause tension between poorer and richer members of society
Higher crime rates and imprisonment
Lower long term GDP growth rates
Lower education levels which effects the quality of the workforce
High unemployment and economically inactive members of society
Define a melting pot
Why is London described as a melting pot
Is a place where a variety of races, cultures and individuals assimilate into a cohesive whole.
In London, there are residents from every country, speaking almost every language.
Explain how open borders have led to a melting point
How is it changing in London
Has allowed people from different countries to migrate and live in London, EU citizens are free to move around the EU.
In London, Brexit has led to restricted free movement.
Explain how FDI has led to a melting point.
How will this change in London
London has attracted 35% of firms who moved their European headquarters. Is a recipient of FDI from France, Japan, Australia, Canada, India and Ireland.
More firms see London as a location for FDI, with its high accessibility, communication and global influence as a world hub.
Define Diaspora and give an example
Is the movement or migration of people who share a national and ethnic identity away from their perceived household.
The Jamaican diaspora consists of those of Jamaican nationality and descent living in the UK, USA and Canada, setting up their own small communities.
Explain how Diasporas can arise from globalisation
Can lead to large volumes of people from the same country migrating due to law changes (EU free movement) in search of a better job, lifestyle or quality of life. People look for other people from the same country when they migrate, seeing diasporas arise.
Why has immigration become a controversial issue
Some extreme political parties have grown in popularity and adopt the view that migrants are leading to overpopulation, overcrowded schools and healthcare and increased unemployment. Has led to tensions between countries like Greece and Turkey over the flow of Syrian refugees.
Identify and explain the players involved in the Dam water conflicts over the Mekong River. (6)
China: Owns half the length of the Mekong, damming the river for HEP would encourage economic development in one of China’s poorest regions.
Myanmar: none of its tributaries would be effected by dam proposals.
Thailand: would like the water and gas produced from HEP for industrial development and to aid rural development .
Laos: one of the world’s poorest countries and 90% of its population depend on the Mekong, dams would reduce river flow.
Cambodia: depends on the Mekong for its annual flooding of its rice growing areas. HEP could boost development but could also displace villagers who live beside the river.
Vietnam: supports 40% of the population and allows rice growth, the dam will reduce river flow.
Is a philosophy based on liberty and equality, supporting free markets, free trade and civil rights.
Explain China’s censorship as an example to control globalisation
Is a single party, communist state
The free flow of ideas and information is perceived as a threat
Enforced a censorship of internet content, overseas TV, Media, Film, video games and texts.
Chinese news and broadcasting are run officially by state media.
Explain limiting immigration as a attempt to control globalisation
Across Europe, USA and Australia there have been debates about migration controls.
The UK has focused on limiting net migration, which is difficult due to EU flows, skills shortages and overseas students.
Explain how globalisation has impacted indigenous people of Canada
Deep tensions between Indigenous people and non-indigenous people where genocide and abuse took place in the colonial rule. Much of indigenous land taken away during the colonial rule was not given back.
The Boreal forest in North Canada have sustained the Canadian first nations, using it for food and water to sustain life.
The river Is being polluted and poisoned by candidates to Tar sands industry, where oil deposits are extracted from open pit minds.
Indigenous communities are seeing increased health problems due to the toxic chemicals released in extraction.
Fish and meat that they usually would eat has been deformed and poisoned.
Canadian government has been accused of supporting TNCs against indigenouslandholders, favouring economic development and domestic energy production rather than the health and preservation of its communities. Canada‘s oil industry expects the government to settle ownership and royalties with first nations
Focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
How has globalisation resulted in global conscience
Globalisation has led to an increased access to global and western cultures, leading to calls for increased rights and changes around the world.
Define an ecological footprint
Is a measure of the land area and water resources that a population needs in order to produce what it consumes, using current technology
Explain local transition towns as a solution to globalisations incompatibility with sustainable development.
Advantages and disadvantages
Is where a small number of towns have vowed to promote local sourcing of goods, to increase sustainability and reduce their carbon footprint and reliance on oil.
A- reduces consumption by repairing or reusing goods, reduces waste and pollution, supports local businesses
D- threaten economic growth as there is a reduced demand for overseas goods, some services (buses) are co-ordinated centrally so are hard to influence
Explain Fair-trade as a solution to globalisations incompatibility with sustainable development
Advantages and disadvantages
Aims to return a bigger proportion of the revenue to producers or growers, fairtrade products are guaranteed as ethically produced.
A- improves living standards of producers in developing countries, revenue gained is usually put towards improving hospitals and wells or better equipment
D- leads to higher prices for consumers, is a high cost model, lack of drive to create better efficiencies.
Explain ethical shopping as a solution to globalisations incompatibility with sustainable development
Advantages and disadvantages
Is a deliberate choice of products produced under fairtrade, organic or cruelty free terms
A- helps to grow smaller and more ethical businesses, reduces CO2 emissions, buying local goods reduces transport miles
D- fairtrade can cause overproduction, organic requires more land leading to deforestation