Equilibrium and Resting Potentials Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Equilibrium and Resting Potentials > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equilibrium and Resting Potentials Deck (61)
Loading flashcards...
1

receive the synaptic inputs from many other neurons and comprise the major receiving portion of a neuron (they basically act like the neuron’s ears)

dendrites

2

conducts action potentials and thus conveys information over long distances that is onto its target neurons

axons

3

have specialized terminals with which they make synaptic contacts with other neurons or muscle cells

axons

4

Protein synthesis occurs in the

cell body of neurons

5

industrial region of each neuron.

cell body

6

refers the electrical difference between two compartments (the inside and the outside of the cell in this case) that is needed to exactly counterbalance the concentration force driving an ion from a compartment where there is a higher concentration of the ion into the compartment having a lower concentration of that ion.

The equilibrium potential

7

why is nervous system important

Multicellular cells are highly interdependent. The cells have become so specialized in their functions that no cell or tissue is capable of an independent existence. Hence a rapid mode of communication is important

8

Evolution has provided two solutions to the problem of intercellular communication:

endocrine system
nervous system

9

this system of communication is
accomplished by means of a chemical agent, or hormone

endocrine system

10

characteristic of intercellular communication via hormones is its

slowness because it is limited by the rate of blood flow

11

Principle Rationale for a Nervous
System

Rapid Communication Over Long Distances

12

system designed for rapid intercellular communication over long distances with high
fidelity

nervous system

13

cells that comprise the nervous system are called

neurons

14

In the nervous system, communication occurs by means of pulses of electrical signals called

action potential

15

Neurons have long cellular processes, called

axons

16

Neurons have long cellular processes, called axons over which
action potentials can be conducted at speeds of up to

120 meters/sec

17

4 major parts of neurons

cell body
dendrites
axon
axon terminal

18

cell body also known as

soma

19

soma, or cell
body, contains the

nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and all the
organelles and features that characterize all cells.

20

where the majority of protein
synthesis occurs, and thus is the neuron’s industrial center.

cell body

21

are a series of processes
that extend from the cell body, and are the parts of the neuron that receives information from
other neurons, as

dendrites

22

is a process that extends out from the cell body and
is the part of the neuron that conducts information from the cell body to distant sites.

axons

23

basically like a wire in an electrical circuit.

axons

24

Each neuron has how many axon/s

1

25

end of the axon

axon terminal

26

close arrangement of the axon’s terminal and the dendrite or cell body of another cell
occurs at a special site called the

synapse

27

The axon terminal at the synapse has numerous specializations, and the most
obvious are the

numerous synaptic vesicles

28

The “balloons” are actually membranous vesicles that contain a chemical called a

neurotransmitter

29

The major idea
is that when a signal is received at one of the dendrites, the signal triggers an electrical pulse which is an

action potential

30

The major idea
is that when a signal is received at one of the dendrites, the signal triggers an electrical pulse, an
action potential, at the junction where the cell body meets the axon. This particular portion of
the axon is called the

axon hillock