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Alimentary - Dentistry > Equine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Deck (65):
1

Describe the dental adaptations that equines have

Interdental space

Limited rostrocaudal movement of temporomandibular joint

Increased lateral movement of TMJ

TMJ allows occlusal contact of all cheek teeth simultaneously

Well developed masticatory musculature

Adapted for contant grinding - hypsodont and irregular enamel ridges

2

What do the two numbers indicate in the triadan system of dental nomenclature?

First number is arcade

Second number indicates tooth

3

What are the ages of eruption of permanent equine teeth?

1st incisor - 2.5 years

2nd incisor - 3.5 years

3rd incisor - 4.5 years

Canine - 4.5 years

2nd premolar - 2.5 years

3rd premolar - 3 years

4th premolar - 4 years

1st molar - 1 year

2nd molar - 2 years

3rd molar - 3.5 years

4

What is anisognathism?

Maxillary arcade is wider than the mandibular arcade

5

What is the angle of the occlusal surface?

10-15º

6

What is the Curve of Spee?

Upward slope of occlusal surface at caudal aspect of the equine mouth

7

Describe the 5 layers of normal cheek tooth anatomy

Cementum - attaches to periodontal ligament

Dentine -  bulk of tooth, tubular structure

Enamel - hardest tissue, laminated sheets

Pulp - blood and nerve supply to tooth

Infundibulum - infolding of enamel from occlusal surface

8

What is the difference between maxillary and mandibular cheek teeth in the horse?

Maxillary teeth are more layered ridges of infundibulum - straight lines

Mandibular teeth have more random infundibulum - flower like

9

What are the reasons for an equine dental exam?

Annual checkover for prohpylaxis

Owner notices problem:

  • Swellings
  • Discharge
  • Weight loss
  • Quidding
  • Headshaking
  • Biting problems
  • Unilateral nasal discharge

10

What should be done during an equine dental examination?

Distant observation

External examination - condition score

Head examination:

  • Symmetry
  • Swelling
  • LNs
  • Nasal discharge
  • Pain on palpation

Oral examination: 

  • Incisors for malocclusion
  • Interdental space for wolf teeth
  • Canines
  • Biting injuries
  • Tongue injuries
  • Cheek teeth

11

What needs to be done during oral examination?

Restraint and sedation

Head support if sedated

Illumination

Gags - Hausmann/wedge

12

What else can be used as diagnostic aids during an equine dental exam?

Mirror

Probes/picks

Oral endoscopy

Radiography

Scintigraphy

Computer Tomography

13

Give some examples of things to examine cheek teeth for

Buccal and lingual points/ulceration

Deciduous caps/reminants

Focal overgrowths

Molar table angle

Wave mouth

Step mouth

Fractured teeth

Diastema

Excessive transverse ridges

Foreign bodies

Periodontal disease

Caries (infundibular in maxillary arcades and peripheral)

14

What are the effects of enamel overgrowths?

Prevent jaws moving freely

Oral pain leading to quidding and weight loss

Biting problems

Headshaking

Severe cases develop shear mouth

15

Describe shearmouth

Occlusal angle greater than 15º

Occurs over a long period of time

Muscles, ligaments and joints remodel to compensate

16

How would you treat shearmouth?

Reduce buccal and lingual points

Reduce angle starting at high side

Regular treatments every 3-6 months

Address any underlying pathology

17

Describe the differences between carbide chip blades and tungsten carbide blades

Carbide chip:

  • Cheap
  • Robust
  • OK for routine work
  • Hard work with hooks

Tungsten carbide:

  • Expensive
  • Brittle
  • Excellent for routine work
  • Remove hooks well
  • Often cut only one way

18

What are the four basic types of rasp required for routine rasping?

Which teeth are they used for?

Straight head, long length - for all lower cheek teeth, 3rd-6th upper cheek teeth

Obtuse angled head, long length - caudal upper cheek teeth and curve of Spee

Angled offset head, medium length - upper 1st-4th cheek teeth

S float - smooth off first cheek teeth and 6th maxillary cheek teeth, bit seat and angle of curve of Spee

19

What should you take care of when using power tools for equine surgery?

Palatine artery

20

Why are power tools good for equine dentistry?

Remove hooks quickly

21

When should deciduous premolars be shed?

2.5, 3 and 4 years

22

What can retained deciduous premolars lead to?

Anorexia

Poor performance

Malocclusion

23

How should 'caps' be removed?

Remove with forceps or screwdriver while not damaging permanent tooth beneath

24

Which teeth in the horses mouth are the ones that usually overgrow?

106, 206, 311 and 411

25

What are rostral and caudal overgrwoths usually associated with?

Rostral displacement of maxillary arcade (parrot mouth)

26

What are the causes of focal overgrowths?

Diastema - gap between two teeth

Displaced teeth

Lost teeth

Fractured teeth

27

What can multiple dental overgrowths result in?

Wavemouth

28

What two things should be taken care of when removing tooth overgrowths in the horse?

Pulp exposure

Heat production

29

What covers the pulp at the occlusal surface?

Secondary dentine

30

What stimulates deposition of secondary dentine?

Occlusal contact

31

Why is there a greater risk of pulp exposure with overgrowths?

Decreased occlusal contact

Decreased secondary dentine

Greater risk of pulp exposure

32

How can exposed pulp be identified?

Probing secondary dentine overlying pulp horns

33

What can pulp exposure be caused by?

Apical tooth infections

Overzealous rasping

34

What can infundibular caries lead to?

Septic pulpitis

35

What percent of horses older than 15 years are affected by infundibular caries?

80%

36

What can cause sagittal fractures of the equine tooth?

Infundibular caries

37

How should excessive transverse ridges be treated?

Reduce larger ridges

Maintain normal ridging

38

What three things does periodontal disease affect?

Gingivae

Periodontal ligament

Alveolar bone

39

What causes primary periodontal disease of horses?

Diastemata

40

What is the most painful equine dental disease?

Periodontal disease

41

Which equine teeth are most frequently affected by periodontal disease?

Mandibular cheek teeth

42

What percent of horses older than 15 years are affected by periodontal disease?

60%

43

Describe how periodontal disease occurs

Localised gingivitis with pocket formation

Trapped debris stagnates

Feed compressed deepening pocket

Destruction of alveolar bone

Bacteria enters pulp cavity

44

Where does periodontal disease usually begin?

Between teeth:

  • Buccal interproximal spaces of maxillary arches
  • Lingual interproximal spaces of mandibular arches

45

How can diastemata be a problem with horses?

Food trapped between teeth

Packs into periodontal spaces

Pressure leads to pain and subsequent quidding

Can lead to bone infection

46

How should diastemata be treated?

Monitoring

Widening

Extraction

Remove impacted food

47

What should be used to remove impacted food in equine teeth?

Long handled dental pick

High pressure water/air picks

48

How should diastemata be managed?

Replace long fibre food or short chopped foods

Remove overgrowths that develop opposite diastemata

49

Describe developmental cheek teeth displacements

Arcades overcrowd during eruption

Often bilateral usually in 4th and 5th cheek teeth

Medial or lateral displacement

Tooth may also be rotated

50

Are congenital or acquired displacements in horses more common?

Acquired

51

What can displacements of cheek teeth lead to?

Diastema

Periodontal disease

52

What can cheek teeth fractures in horses occur secondary to?

Infundibular caries

53

What can cheek teeth fractures in horses lead to or be the cause of?

Septic pulpitis

Can cause acquired overgrowths

54

Which horses are apical tooth infections most common in?

Younger horses - mean age 5 years

55

What are the clinical signs with apical tooth infections?

Asymmetrical jaw swelling

Ventral discharging tract

Oral involvement

Quidding

Halitosis

Submandibular lymph node enlargement

56

What is the aetiology of maxillary apical tooth infections?

Infundibular caries

Premature pulp exposure during wear

Pulp exposure after transverse fracture

Periodontal fistulation

Iatrogenic from excessive rasping

57

What occurs with maxillary apical tooth infections in 08 to 11?

Sinusitis - unilateral nasal discharge

58

What are some radiographic signs of dental disease?

Teeth absence

Malpositioning

Crown deformation

Radicular distortion

Loss of the lamina dura denta

Periapical lucency

Cementosis

Localised maxillary bone proliferation - osteitis

59

What are the radiographic signs for apical tooth root infections?

Periapical sclerosis

Periapical halo

Cementoma formation

Clubbing of tooth roots

60

What are computer topographic signs of apical tooth infections?

Gas within bulging root area

Fragmentation of the root

Increased pulp volume

Abnormal pulp morphology

61

What are the main treatments of apical tooth infections?

Conservative - antibiotics

Currettage

Tooth removal by repulsion

Tooth removal by extraction

Tooth removal by lateral buccotomy

Endodontic treatment

62

What are the incidence rates of complications with repulsion of apical tooth infections?

32% of mandibular cheek teeth

33% of maxillary teeth

68% of maxillary teeth with sinusitis

63

How much less is the complication rate with extraction compared to repulsion?

One third

64

Which teeth is oral extraction difficult in?

Caudal cheek teeth of young horses

65

What are the 6 steps during the oral extraction procedure?

Sedation

Local blocks

Separation

Placement

Grip

Patience