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Alimentary - Dentistry > Small Animal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small Animal Deck (56):
1

What should be checked for in every puppy and kitten during an oral examination?

Cleft palate

Occlusion

Correct number of teeth

2

What is the normal occlusion for canine teeth?

Scissor bite - maxillary incisors slightly in front of mandibular incisors

Mandibular canine should occlude between maxillary canine and third incisor

Premolar interdigitation: zigzag-pattern of the premolar teeth

Posterior scissor bite: upper premolar 4 should be buccal to the mandibular molar 1

3

Describe lingually displaced mandibular canine teeth and why they are a problem

Can be unilateral or bilateral

Often in combination with mandibular distoclusion

Can create painful impingement into the palate

Results in extensive palatal defects if left untreated

4

When is a tooth considered a persistent deciduous tooth?

When the temporary tooth is still there at the time the permanent tooth has erupted

5

What can a persistent deciduous tooth lead to?

Malocclusion

Periodontal disease

6

What is the treatment for persistent deciduous teeth?

Dental radiography - determine whether any physiological resorption is present

Extraction

Long thin roots are prone to fragmentation

7

Describe supernumerary teeth

Often incisor or premolar teeth

Crowding can lead to periodontal disease

Extract the more abnormally positioned tooth

Often only a cosmetic concern

8

How can missing teeth be diagnosed?

Dental radiography

9

What are some examples of cases involving missing teeth?

Hypodontia - congenital absence of one or few teeth and is common

Impacted

Embedded tooth

Traumatic crown fracture below gingival margin

Previous extraction

10

What is enamel hypoplasia?

Enamel that develops prior to eruption

Hypoplastic enamel means an event occured preventing enamel development prior to eruption

11

What are four examples of trauma-induced dental problems?

Abrasion

Attrition

Fractures

Intrinsic Staining

12

Describe attrition and abrasion in teeth

Tooth wears against tooth through abnormal contact in attrition

Wears against abrasive objects in abrasion

Either can result in formation of reparative dentin or pulp exposure can occur

13

Describe reparative dentin

Beige or dark-brown circles on the worn tooth surface

14

What are five types of fractures that can occur in teeth?

Fracture with pulp exposure

Root fracture

Crown and root fracture

Chip fracture

Pulpal blush

15

How does intrinsic staining occur?

Tooth discoloured from within caused by blunt trauma

16

What is the difference between reparative dentin or pulp exposure?

Pulp exposure has a hole into which you can sink the tip of a sharp explorer

Reparative dentin has a hard continuous surface over which you run the tip of the explorer at a 90º angle

17

Why should you be suspicious of an upper fourth premolar frature if one side has more calculus than the other?

Older slab fracture can be covered with calculus

Fractured surface is more retentive for calculus deposits because it's rougher

18

Why is leaving fractured teeth when there appears to be no problem not a good option?

Periapical pathology develops soon after the trauma

Abscess formation is just a matter of time

Pain can range from a dull-numb discomfort to excruciating pain

19

How does pulp necrosis occur?

Pulp exposure leads to microbial invasion leading to pulpitis and then necrosis

20

What can cause pathological changes in the jaw bone?

Periapical pathology causes bacteria to invade where the apical delta meets the peri-apex

They produce toxins and the interaction with the immune response results in pathological changes

21

What are typical signs on a radiograph of periapical radiolucency?

Bulbous shape

Loss of lamina dura

22

What are the two things that should be provided on first presentation of fractured teeth?

Analgesia

Antibiotics

23

What are the three definitive treatments for the fractured tooth?

Extraction

Vital pulp treatment

Root canal therapy

24

How can oral mass lesions be diagnosed?

Diagnostic imaging

Biopsy

25

What signs can be seen on a radiograph with oral mass lesions?

Signs of ossification in an ossifying epulis

26

When does tooth eruption begin?

3-4 weeks old

27

When is tooth eruption complete?

2-3 months

28

What is a neutroclusion or Class I malocclusion?

Normal rostro-caudal relationship between maxilla and mandible

Individual tooth malaligned

29

What is mandibular distoclusion or Class II malocclusion?

Mandible more caudally positioned in relation to maxilla

30

What is mandibular mesioclusion or Class III malocclusion?

Mandible more rostrally positioned in relation to the maxilla

31

What is the dental formula for dogs?

2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 2/3)

32

What is the dental formula for cats?

2(I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 3/2, M 1/1)

33

Which tooth is the most commonly affected by impaction?

First premolar tooth

34

What affects at least 70% of all cats and dogs greater than 3 years of age?

Periodontal disease

35

What is the primary factor in causing periodontal disease?

Presence of plaque-bacteria and their toxic by-products

36

What are some secondary factors causing periodontal disease?

Lack of oral hygiene

Calculus deposits

Nutrition lacking in EFA's and anti-oxidants

Genetics

Stress

Systemic illness

37

What are the three stages of plaque formation?

Attachment

Growth

Dispersal

38

What is plaque?

Mucoid matter on teeth especially near and under the gingival margin

No. 1 enemy in periodontal disease and in stomatitis

39

What is calculus?

Mineralized plaque - tartar

40

What will you almost always find with calculus?

Periodontal disease

41

What is the normal gingival sulcus depth in dogs? Cats?

1-3 mm in dogs

0.5-1 mm in cats

42

What are the 5 stages of periodontal disease?

Stage 0 - Healthy gingiva

Stage 1 - Gingivitis with no evidence of attachment loss

Stage 2 - Mild periodontitis with <25% attachment loss

Stage 3 - Moderate periodontitis with 25-50% attachment loss

Stage 4 - Severe periodontitis with >50% attachment loss

43

What is always the first stage of periodontal disease?

Gingivitis

44

Describe gingivitis

Hyperaemia

Oedema

Tendency of gingiva to bleed

Plaque induced but reversible with consistent regular plaque control

45

How can periodontal disease progress through grades?

Plaque in subgingival sulcus favours disease progression

Decreasing O2 saturation in plaque causes shift of bacteria to gram-negative anaerobes

Sulcus not keratinised so microbial invasion of periodontal tissues occurs

46

What two things can cause destruction of tissue in periodontal disease?

Gram-negative bacteria

Tissue's immune system

47

What needs to be done to fully diagnose periodontal disease?

Put animal under general anaesthesia

Complete dental charting with dental radiograph

48

What things does a dental radiograph allow us to assess?

Percentage of attachment loss

Pattern of bone loss

Difficulties if extracting

49

What six things should be checked when dental charting?

Missing teeth

Mobility

Gingival recession

Pockets and measure depth

Furcations

Lingual and palatal aspects

50

What are the 3 stages of mobility and which is normal for mandibular incisors?

Stage 1 - up to 0.5mm lateral movement

Stage 2 - between 0.5 to 1mm

Stage 3 - greater than 1mm

 

Stage 2 is normal for mandibular incisors

51

What are the four treatments for periodontal disease?

Extractions

Scaling and polishing

Prevention and oral home care

Advanced treatments

52

What is a complication of periodontal disease?

Oronasal fistula

53

When should you suspect an oronasal fistula?

Canine tooth in dogs has severe periodontal disease

Symptoms of nasal discharge and sneezing after eating or drinking

54

Why should you always take radiographs before extracting on a small-breed mandible?

Have relatively big teeth in small, thin mandible

If bone resorbtion has occured then there might be even less bone present on the mandible

55

What is stomatitis defined as?

Inflammation of the oral mucosa extending beyond the mucogingival junction

56

Describe the treatment of stomatitis

Early referral recommendable

Extensive extraction work

Immediate pain-relief

Plaque-control

Consider corticosteroids as last resort