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Flashcards in Equine Deck (174)
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Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of ovarian haematoma?


Causes of cervical lesions, symptoms, diagnosis and treament of cervical lesions?


Causes, symptoms, diagnosis of endometrial fibrosis?


Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, effects of uterine cysts?


What is the most common cause of infertility in the mare? Specific species associated?


Why does Persistent mating induced Endometritis (PMIE) occur?


What are reasons a mare might be more susceptible to PMIE?


Causes of PMIE?


Symptoms and Diagnosis of PMIE?


What is an essential part of aftercare for equine castration?

Confine for 12-24 hours after castration but Exercise starting the day after surgery to ensure drainage and reduce oedema


D) Persistent CL does not have all the septa in between


** look at the other ovary to compare

** you have to look several times

* Treat with PGF2alpha, should go away-- GTCT would not get smaller-- the other two would

* If she is cycling normally, not a GTCT



Twins or a cyst and an embryo





* Small intestines coming out through the ventral midline incision

12 hrs -6 days after surgery


For fertility exam, what do you look at with semen?

* Volume of ejaculate x concentration = total sperm count (500 million per dose)

* Sperm cell morphology

* pH of semen (7.2-7.9)- may indicate incomplete sperm release or infection

* Bacterial cultures e.g. for Taylorella equigenitalis (contagious equine metritis (CEM)), Pseudomonas, Klebsiella)

* Motility analysis (% actively moving forward), chromosomal analysis, sperm chromatin assays, acrosome reacionts, etc.


What is the gold standard of predicting fertility of a stallion? What is good?

Breeding a group of fertile mares.. 65% would be good in one cycle


Natural breeding limitations

* Stallion can only breed limited number of mares

* Mare and stallion have to be in the same location-- difficult during movement restrictions e.g. EI outbreak 2007

* Risk of diseases, injuries

* Difficult to assess semen quality (dismount sample)


AI Advantages over natural service

* More mares can be bred to single stallion

* mare and stallion do not have to be in same location

* Limiting transmission of venereal diseases

* In cases of incompatibility (size, temperment, physical disability) breeding still possible

* minimum contamination breeding technique possible

* Stallion's semen quality easily monitored

* Quantitatively and qualitatively


Why is semen extension necessary?

* Increases volume of ejaculate

* Permits effective antibiotic treatment of semen containing pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms

* Prolongs survival or spermatozoa

* Protects spermatozoa from unfavourable environment conditions

* Aids in proper evaluation of sperm motility

* Increases pregnancy rates due to more viable spermatozoa


Shire mare Bella, 12 yo, pieces of membrane hanging from vulva, foul smell, due date May 23rd (presented May 15th), udder full of colostrum, smelled terrible... What do you do first?

General clinical exam first


Plan to remove foetus via fetotomy in a horse

Create space--> remove head and neck

* Correct carpal flexion--> remove lower limbs

* Decrease diameter--> take off shoulder, eviscerate


Approaching mare infertility

* History (individual- cycle, breeding; management)

* Rectal palpation and ultrasound


How can you diagnose retention of endometrial cups? Treatment?

* Diagnosis: uterine endoscopy, ultrasound

* Treatment: laser ablation


Causes of silent heat or missed oestrus? Treatment?

Causes: Ineffective oestrus detection, no obvious oestrus signs, wrong teasing technique

* Treatment: synchronise cycle (PGF2alpha), AI if possible


Treatment and management of PMIE in a mare

* Correct predisposing factors: Caslick's, Episioplasty, Urethral extension (minimise chances of uterine infection in predisposed mares-- history of reccurent uterine infections or infertility, uterus needs to be clear from bacteria and inflammatory products by day 5 (embryo arrives in uterus))

* Ensure intrauterine durgs do not cause irritation or fibrosis, do not use antibiotics that are not proven

* Treat during oestrus (endogenous defences are increased)--> aim at breeding during the same oestrus

* Breed mares by minimal contamination technique (MCT)

* Dilute semen with extender at least 1:2 (better 1:4)

* Breed mare only once as long before ovulation as possible (48hrs)

* Dilate cervix after AI

* Uterine flushes-- in oestrus (if fluid is detected) until 2-3 days post ovulation, if necessary, until returning fluid is clear

** Oxytocin (20 IU)-- at the end of each flush and 4 hours after breeding

** Systemic antibiotic therapy-- until 3 days post ovulation

** temporary Caslicks can be done daily; permanent after treatment end


What is the vestibulo-vaginal sphincter?

Where the urethra enters-- another narrowing, if there is a good seal-- it is a barrier but can be defective


Common lumps in horses

* melanomas

* sarcoids

* Squamous cell carcinoma

* eosinophilic granuloma

* Viral papilloma

* Ulcerated lumps- common on distal limbs


Causes of pruritis in horses

* Culicoides hypersensitivity

* Onchocerca microfilaria

* Lice

* Mange

* Urticaria

* Atopy


Common place for lesions? Common age? Where in Australia? Treatment?

* Age of onset 2-4 years (young adult horses)

* Northern Australia- warm, tropical climates

* Treatment-- PREVENTION IS THE KEY-- can't have them on corticosteroids all the time (but can manage them with corticosteroids when intense)-- horses indoors at dawn and dusk, spray with insect repellent, fans or drafts