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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (146)
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* Percussion

* Endoscopy at rest: discharge from nasomaxillary opening

* Radiogrpahy: fluid lines in sinuses

* Oral examination teeth

* Sinus centesis (trephine)

* direct endoscopy

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Primary sinusitis management

*Lavage and systemic antibiotics

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Chronic primary sinusitis or seconadry sinusitis management

* bone flap- expore, debride, treat the cause (e.g. tooth root infection), lavage

*  Systemic antibiotics

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Severe URT obstruction- emergency tracheostomy indications

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DDX Epistaxis

* Trauma, progressive ethmoid haematoma, Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), mass (FB, neoplasia, abscess), guttural pouch mycosis (severe or fatal epistaxis)

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Diagnosis of progressive ethmoid haematoma

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PEH Treatment

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Guttural pouch mycosis sequelae

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Guttural pouch mycosis treatment

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Abnormal respiratory noises in horses

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Alar fold redundancy

Differentiate from normal high blowing at canter

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Treatment of alar fold redudancy

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Change in airway dynamics at exercise

Airway Dynamics

Many causes of airway obstruction become clinically

significant and worsen with increasing exercise intensity

On inspiration during intense exercise the forces acting to

collapse the walls of the URT are considerable

Air movement is achieved by creation of pressure

gradients during inspiration and expiration

During exercise

↑↑ RR (6x), ↑↑airflow (15x), ↑↑trans

-upper

airway P (10x),

but impedence to flow is normally not reduced

due

to

- Structural features of nostrils, nasal passages, pharynx & larynx, and

trachea act to withstand collapsing force

- Dysfunction of any of these structures results in their collapse into

airway during exercise

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Narrowing of lumen does what to flow?

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VO2 max in a race horse

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Structural and functional features important in stabilising against airway collapse

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How does head and neck position effect amount of air coming in?

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Diagnostic plan for poor performance in race horse

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Structures that may collapse into the airway during exercise

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Palatal dysfunction- palatal instability and intermittent DDSP

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Signs and symptoms of IDDSP

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PI and IDDSP: Challenges in diagnosis and management

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Aetiopathogenesis of PI and IDDSP

Experimental models

– bilateral resection thyrohyoid m.

- distal hypoglossal n. block

Some cases are preceded by PI during exercise and/or

increased frequency of swallowing

Proposed contributing factors

Caudal retraction of tongue

Opening of mouth

Position of larynx and hyoid during exercise-

Caudal descent of larynx

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IDDSP management