Essay 1 - Causes Of Civil War And Reconstruction Flashcards Preview

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The constitution (1788) - 3/5's slave clause

1788 All states under the constitution get at least 2 representatives in congress and larger states get more based on their population. Southern slave states, in order to get them to give up individual autonomy to join the union were granted the privilege to count their slaves, though not citizens, as 3/5's of one person to count towards representation in congress. This initially gave southern states much power in congress decisions and for voting presidents.


Alexander Hamilton - Hamilton's report on manufacturers

Secretary of Treasury 1789-1795

Believed in the power of the nation through manufacturing and having a national bank. Backed by the northern manufacturing company's but not by southern planters who didn't profit by this.


Dredd Scott decision

Ruling happened in March 1857
A slave tried to sue his master John Emerson because he traveled with him to the state Illinois (barred from slavery by the Missouri compromise) and wanted to claim that because he had recided there he became a free man. The ruling was that only whites can be citizens, and that there are no rights for blacks that whites are bound to respect. And that congress possessed no power to bar slavery from any territory.


Kansas Nebraska Act

May 30th, 1854 -served as the repeal of the Missouri act and gave these states the right to choose for themselves the right to slavery or not. Resulted in two capitals in Kansas (bleeding Kansas). Kansas was not admitted to a state until 1861.


Compromise of 1850

California asked to be admitted to the Union as a free state. Many southerners opposed the measure, fearing that it would upset the sectional balance in Congress. Senator Henry Clay offered a plan with four main provisions that came to be known as the Compromise of 1850. California would enter the Union as a free state. The slave trade, but not slavery itself, would be abolished in the nation’s capital. A stringent new law would allow southerners to reclaim runaway slaves. And the status of slavery in the remaining territories acquired from Mexico would be left to the decision of the local white inhabitants.


The fugitive slave act

Since constitution but re-enforced after the compromise of 1850


Missouri compromise

1820 stated that all future states to be admitted to the west, north of longitude line of 36.30 slavery was barred and south slavery was ok.


Lincolns presidential election

1860 his ideals of slavery made Southern states want to recede


Harper's Ferry

May 1859 - John Brown and abolitionists followers went to Harper's Ferry Virginia and killed slaver owners and armed some slaves to try to take over the south. Was seen by northerners as a hero saving slaves. Seen as a the protection of a killer of southerners by the whole north.


Southern secession of states

1860 Months after Lincolns inauguration - first seven states left the union because they knew Lincolns views on slavery being evil and being a minority in congress.


Assault on fort Sumter

April 12 1861-A federal military base located in South Carolina was fired upon by confederate troops. This was Lincolns excuse to declare war on the entire Confederacy.


The assassination of Abraham Lincoln

April 14th, 1865- being the best person to reunite the union dieing left vise president Adam Johnson in charge.


Thirteenth amendment

January 13, 1865 - abolished slaver from the entire Union.


Andrew Johnson

His southern background and racist beliefs thwarted many things achieved by the civil war. In summer of 1865 He pardoned and reinstated most of the southern states, and their property, which meant reinstating the same leaders that wanted black oppression


Black codes

All reinstated southern states who had to abide by the 13th amendment of slaverys abolishment created Black codes to prevent blacks from having many rights like the right to testify against whites, to serve in a jury or militia, and the right to vote.


The Fourteenth Amendment

1866 Made all people born in the United States citizens and granted all rights and immunities to all citizens regardless of color. And all people denied the right to vote would not count as population determining the number of representatives in congress.


The fifteenth amendment

1870 prohibited the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race. Bitterly opposed by the Democratic Party, it was ratified in 1870.


Vigilantism and the Klu Klux Kan

Without the power to legally impose blacks from voting people illegally created many groups such as the Klan to intimidate and kill any Black male from being active in politics.


Civil Rights Act of

1875 - outlawed racial discrimination in places of public concern like hotels.