# Estimating Flashcards

1
Q

1 – A contractor bids a project based on the below figures: A Building Contractors cost on this job.\$ 1,000 in equipment\$ 3,000 in labor\$ 6,000 in materialsOwner has offered contractor \$ 12,000 to do job. What would be the outcome if contractor takes the \$ 12,000 offer? 1 – Project overhead is 20% of direct labor = \$ 600.002 – Overhead is 10% of direct labor cost and materials = \$ 900.003 – Profit is 10% on all of the costs = \$ 1,150.00Total cost for this project is \$ 12,650.00

A

A profit of only \$ 500.00

2
Q

2 – How many sheets of 4’ x 8’ plywood would it take to form a freestanding concrete wall 8 feet high by 24 feet long 12 inches thick?

A

Answer: 13 ** Remember when forming a concrete wall out of plywood that you have to form the ends also. So each end would take a piece of plywood 1 foot by 8 feet high. Each side would require 6 4’ x 8’ pieces and the end would take 2 1 foot by 8 pieces. The answer is 12 -1/2 pieces so the best answer is 13. It may help to draw a picture.

3
Q

– There is an excavated hole that is 11 feet deep with a flat area on the bottom that is 3 feet wide with Type C soil. What is the width at the top of this excavation?

A

Answer: 36 feet Note: It may help to draw a picture and look up info in Excavations in the OSHA Book

4
Q

– What is the formula for calculating concrete?

A

Answer: Divide cubic feet by 27

5
Q

5 – An owner wants the contractor to add a change order for \$ 2500 for materials and \$ 700 for labor. There is a deduction from the contract of \$ 1000 for materials and 280 for labor. The contractor will add 10% to his change order and will also give back the 10% on the deductions. What will be the net change order to add to the contract?

A

6
Q

6 – You are excavating an area 245 feet by 350 feet; the equipment can remove 100 cubic yards per hour. If you need 6 inches of grade cut off the whole area, how many hours would it take?

A

Answer: 15.88 hours probably 16 hours Formula: 245 x 350 x .50 divided by 27 divided by 100 = 15.88 hours

7
Q

7 – Parking lot is 140 feet wide and slopes 1/8th inch per foot. The highest elevation is 80 feet. What is the lowest elevation?

A

Answer: 78.54 feetFormula: 140 divided by 8 = 17. 5 inches 80.00 – 1.46 = 78.54

8
Q

8 – If you have a rise of 88 feet in one mile, what would the rise be?

A

Answer: 1.7 %Formula: 88 feet divided by 5,280 = 1.67 %

9
Q

9 – You are building a 48’ x 28’ single story house with a 8:12 straight gable roof and the sides are 96” from sole plate to top plate. How many 4’ x 8’ sheets of wall sheathing are required? Do not deduct for door or window openings or for any waste.

A

Answer: 47 piecesFormula: 48 feet plus 28 feet x 2 x 8 feet = 1,216 square feet of sides14 feet x .67 = 9.38 x 14 feet divided by 2 x 2 = 131.32 x 2 (both ends) = 262.64 square + 1,216 square feet divided by 32 = 46.20 pieces

10
Q

10 – There is a 24’ long, 2” x 4” construction fir wall that has a double top plate, a single bottom plate with (19) 8’ studs. Fir costs \$750 per thousand board feet. How much will it cost for the lumber on this wall? Do not allow for waste.

A

Answer: \$112.00 –Formula: 2 x 4 x 224 divided by 12 = 149.33 board feet x \$.75 = \$ 112.00

11
Q

– What is the percent ofgrade if vertical is 83 feet and horizontal is 277 feet?

A

Answer: 29.96 % Formula: 83 divided by 277 = 29.96 %

12
Q

12 – What would be the total cost of workman’s compensation insurance for a company if the main office salary was at \$ 125,000 at \$ 1.20 per hundred and the field salaries were \$ 250,000 at \$ 8.50 per hundred?

A

Answer: \$ 22,750.00Formula: \$ 125,000 divided by 100 = 1,250 x \$ 1.20 = \$ 1,500.00 \$ 250,000 divided by 100 = 2,500 x \$ 8.50 = \$ 21,250.00 \$ 22,750.00

13
Q

13 – What would be the total cost of workman’s compensation insurance for a company if the main office salary was at \$ 125,000 at \$ .10 per hundred and the field salaries were \$ 250,000 at \$ .20 per hundred?

A

Answer: \$ 625.00Formula: \$ 125,000 divided by 100 = 1,250 x \$.10 = \$ 125.00 \$ 250,000 divided by 100 = 2,500 x \$.20 = \$ 500.00 \$ 625.00

14
Q

14 – A company has current assets of \$ 250,000 and current liabilities of \$ 180,000. Their fixed assets are \$ 1,500,000 and long term debt is \$ 750,000. Their bonding capacity is 10 times their working capital, what is their bonding capacity?

A

Answer: \$ 700,000.00Formula: Working capital = Current assets \$ 250,000 minus current liabilities \$180,000= working capital which is \$ 70,000. Bonding is 10 times working capital = \$ 70,000 Note: Fixed assets and long term debt mean nothing \$ 70,000 x 10 = \$ 700,000

15
Q

15 – A contractor uses the accrual method of accounting. He has \$ 6,000 billing for May, a \$ 10,000 billing for June. He receives \$ 6,000 in June payments and he pays his total bills of \$ 1,000 in May and total bills of \$ 5,000 in June. What is his profit for June?

A

Answer: \$5,000.00Formula: \$ 10,000 billing for June less \$ 5,000 bills in June = \$ 5,000 profit The month of May has no bearing on answer, only June accounting.

16
Q

16 – A concrete footing needs to have a load supported on it of 252 kips, with a soil bearing capacity of 6,000 pounds per square foot. How many square feet will this footing have to be?

A

Answer: 42 square feetFormula: 252 kips or 252,000 pounds divided by 6,000 pounds = 42 square feet

17
Q

17 – If you have a pier or pier footing that is 7’0” x 7’0” by 1’6” deep using 4,000 psi concrete. The soil that is footing is sitting on has a bearing capacity of 2,000 pounds per square foot. What is the maximum load that soil can bear with this footing in kips?

A

Answer: 98 kips or 98,000 poundsFormula: The area of 7 feet x 7 feet x 2,000 pounds per square foot = 98,000 pounds The depth of the footing and 4,000 psi concrete has no bearing on answer 98,000 pounds or 98 kips

18
Q

18 – A question that said if you have 2 workers working 40 hours in 5 days (which is 8 hours per day)how many____ workers would do the same job in 2 days.The answers given were 2, 3, 4, 5,

A

Answer: 5 workers in 2 daysFormula: Figure the man hours worked first. 2 workers x 40 hours = 80 man hours 80 man hours divided by 16 (2 – 8 hour days) = 5 workers in 2 days

19
Q

19 – A question dealing with paint coverage. They will give you how much area a gallon of paint will cover for the first coat and the second coat and the cost per gallon. They then want you to figure the area of a wall on the drawings and figure what the cost will be to paint both sides of a wall. I don’t know either of these figures so I am making this one up. 1 – Gallon of paint is \$ 20.00 2 – A gallon of paint will cover 400 square feet 3 – The wall measures 40 feet long and 10 feet high Each side of the wall is 400 square feet and both sides receive paint

A

400 x 2 = 800 square feet divided by 400 square feet = 2 x \$ 20.00 per gallon = \$ 40.00

20
Q

20 – A road is 26’ 6” wide. From the center of the road, the slope drops 2% to the edge. What is the elevation drop at the edge of the road?

A

Answer: The actual answer is 3 - 3/16 inch. Probably the answer they are looking for is a 4 inch drop.Formula: Half of the road width to get to center which is 13’3” 13.25 x .02 = .265. This in inches is 3-3/16 inches

21
Q

21 – Contactor agrees to a unit price contract to produce work for \$50 per unit A, for \$150 per unit B, and \$ 375 per unit C. Contractor is to add 30% for overhead and profit. How much should he be paid for productivity for 27 units for A, 56 units for B, and 78 for C?

A

Answer: More than \$50,800.00 Formula: \$ 50.00 x 27 = \$ 1,350.00 \$ 150.00 x 56 = \$ 8,400.00 \$ 375.00 x 78 = \$ 29,250.00 \$ 39,000.00Overhead/profit 30% \$ 11,700.00 Total \$ 50,700.00Note: The actual answer is \$ 50,700.00 but use answer above as best one.

22
Q

22 – Compressed fill materials for footings does not require specifications for the equipment used for compaction. The excavation is 50 feet x 80 feet x 9 feet, how many cubic yards will be excavated?

A

Answer: 1000 – 2000 cubic yards Formula: 50 feet x 80 feet x 9 feet divided by 27 = 1,333.33 cubic yardsNote: The actual amount is 1,333.33 cubic yards but use answer above.

23
Q

23 – A 50 foot wide road has an elevation in the center of 26’4” with a slope to the edge of 2%, what is the elevation at the edge?

A

nswer: 25.83 Formula: The center of the road is 25’0” 25.00 x .02 = .50 or 6 inches 26.33 - .50 = 25.83

24
Q

This question is like question # 23 with different elevation.24 – There is a 50 foot roadway that has a 2% slope from the center. The center of the road has an elevation of 26.20. What is the elevation of the edge of the road?

A

Answer: 25.70 Answer: None of the above (all answers were incorrect)Formula: The center of the road is 25’0” 25.00 x .02 = .50 or 6 inches 26.20 - .50 = 25.70

25
Q

25 – An area is 100 feet long and 60 feet wide that needs to excavated 4 foot deep. How much soil needs to be removed?

A

Answer: 889 cubic yards Formula: 100.00 x 60.00 x 4.00 = 24,000 cubic feet divided by 27 = 888.89 cubic yards

26
Q

26 – How many cubic yards of dirt will be removed from an area 50 feet x 80 feet x 9 feet deep?

A

Answer: 1,333.33 cubic yards. Formula: 50.00 x 80.00 x 9.00 = 36,000 cubic feet divided by 27 = 1,333.33 cubic yards

27
Q

27 – How many cubic yards of dirt needs to be removed from a bank that is 9 feet by 9 feet x 6 feet deep that has a 1.5% swell factor?

A

Answer: 18.27 cubic yards – probably exam answer is 19 or 20 yardsFormula: 9.00 x 9.00 x 6.00 x 1.015 divided by 27 = 18.27 cubic yards

28
Q

28 – A contractor has a cost plus job with labor and materials that total \$ 60,000.00 and has a markup of 40%. The owner has stated that if the contractor can keep the construction cost under \$ 100,000.00 that he will receive a 10% bonus and also if he can finish the project early he will receive \$ 500.00 per each day of finishing early. The project was finished 5 days early, what is the total bill owed to the contractor?

A

Answer: Over \$ 95,000 Formula: \$ 60,000.00 x 1.40 (40% mark-up) = \$ 84,000.00 \$ 84,000.00 + \$ 2,500.00 (finishing 5 days early) = \$ 86,500.00 \$ 86,500.00 x 1.10 (10% bonus) = \$ 95,150.00The total cost was \$ 95,150.00 if you add your 10% bonus after the \$ 2,500.00 saving for finishing early.

29
Q

29 – When estimating concrete, the formula is to multiply length x:

A

answer: Width x depth divided by 27

30
Q

30 – The insurance company is giving a 10% discount to the contractor for safety coverage.The insurance premium is \$300.00 per month with an additional cost of \$400.00 for a one time set up fee and \$15.00 per month fee to run the coverage. What would be the total insurance premium to the contractor for the next 3 years?

A

answer: \$ 10,566.00 Formula: \$ 300.00 x 36 months (3 years) = \$ 10,800.00 \$ 15.00 x 36 months (3 years) = \$ 540.00 \$ 400 set up fee (one time) = \$ 400.00 \$ 11,740.00 \$ 11,740 x .10 (10% discount) = \$ - 1,174.00 \$ 10,566.00

31
Q

(This question is worded like # 30 but different equation) 31 – The insurance company is giving a 10% discount to the contractor for safety coverage. The insurance premium is \$300.00 per month with an additional cost of \$400.00 for a one time set up fee and \$15.00 per month fee to run the coverage. What would be the total savings over a 3 year period?

A

Answer: \$ 1,174.00 Formula: \$ 300.00 x 36 months (3 years) = \$ 10,800.00 \$ 15.00 x 36 months (3 years) = \$ 540.00 \$ 400 set up fee (one time) = \$ 400.00 \$ 11,740.00 \$ 11,740 x .10 (10% discount) = \$ 1,174.00

32
Q

32 – What is a firm’s return on total assets if the current assets are \$ 80,000, the fixed assets are \$ 112,000 and the inventory included in the fixed assets are \$ 12,000. The company’s current liabilities are \$ 30,000 and the long term liabilities are \$ 86,000. The total net income for the year is \$ 57,000.

A

Answer: 29.7%Formula: Net profit (\$ 57,000) divided by total assets (\$ 192,000) = Return on total assets or 29.7%Note: Inventory is included in the fixed assets and current and long term liabilities don’t have any bearing.

33
Q

33 – Workers compensation is calculated per \$ 100.00. What would be the total cost of workman’s compensation insurance for a company if the main office salary was at \$ 25,000 at \$ .10 per hundred and the field salaries were \$ 125,000 at \$ .20 per hundred?

A

Answer: \$ 275.00Formula: \$ 25,000 divided by 100 = 250 x \$ .10 = \$ 25.00 \$ 125,000 divided by 100 = 1250 x \$ .20 = \$ 250.00 \$ 275.00

34
Q

34 – On an architectural plan that shows a loading dock wall that is 4 1/2 inches long with a 1/4 inch scale, what is the actual length of this wall?

A

Answer: 18 feet Formula: 4 ½ inches (4.5) divided by ¼ inch (.25) = 18 feet

35
Q

35 – A worker is paid every two weeks at 12.00 per hour. The first week he works 30 hours and the second week he has worked 50 hours. What is his salary?

A

Actual answer is \$ 1,020.00 Answer: Between \$ 1,000.00 and \$ 1,500.00

36
Q

Calculate the number of cubic yards of asphalt to cover a dumpster pad with 6 inches of material, where the length of the pad is 20 feet and the witdth is 15 feet.

A

6 cubic yardsMultiply length x width to get the area (20x15 = 280 sq. ft.) Divide area by thickness in feet. To find the cubic ft. 280 x .5 = 150 cubic feet Convert to cubic yards: 150 / 27 = 5.55 cubic yards

37
Q

A sidewalk 100’ long slopes at 1/16” per foot. What is the total drop or rise at one end?

A

0.52’

38
Q

A blueprint is drawn to a scale of 3/16” = 1’-0”. What will 4 1/2” on this drawing equal? (study guide)

A

24’

39
Q

An underground tank with inside dimensions of 8’ 3/4” x 4’ 1/2” and 4’ deep will be filled with sand. The total cubic yards of sand required to fill the tank is___________. Make no allowance for compaction of sand.

A

Less than 5.00

40
Q

Given: A 24’ long x 52’ wide, 8” thick slab on grade is to be edge-formed with pressure treated pine. How many board feet of pine will be required to construct a 2” thick edge-form for the slab on grade described above?

A

203 board feet

41
Q

A contractor bids a job for \$60,000, plus 10% for overhead and 8% profit on all costs. What will be the contractor’s bid?

A

\$71,280

42
Q

A 5 gallon bucket of concrete sealer covers 250 sq. feet. How many buckets will it take to seal a concrete slab that is 200’ by 125’?

A

100

43
Q

The courtyard of a condo complex contains 1,600 sq. feet of area. Each paver is 4” x 8”. How many brick pavers will be required to cover the courtyard? Allow 5% for waste.

A

7,560 pavers

44
Q

A commercial piece of property has to be re-seeded. The property is 1,500’ x 1,800 ‘. The lot contains a two story building that is 150’ x 150’ and a one story building that is 40’ x 40’. Also, there is a 100’ x 200’ parking area and 2,000 sq ft of entrance road and walkways. What is the cost to re-seed the property if seed is \$27 per lb and covers 2,500 sq ft per lb? Add labor as 15% of the seed cost.

A

\$32,961

45
Q

A building slab will be 25’ x 90’ x 8” How many cubic yards of concrete will be needed? (Note: assume that the grade will be perfectly level and that there will be no crown or slope in the slab do not include waste or accessing your estimate.)

A

56 yd.³(25×90 = 2250 ft.²) , (multiply by 8 inches (.66) = 1485 ft.² , divide by 27

46
Q

A cut stake is being set for the excavation of a trench using a building level (transit). The bottom of the trench will be at elevation 94.00 feet. A rod reading of 4.70 feet is taken on a benchmark whose elevation is 102.50 feet. The rod reading on the mark on the cut stake is 6.20 feet. What should the cut stake be marked

A

7.00Construction Math: Add the reading of 4.7 to the benchmark elevation of 102.5 for a total of 107.2. Next add the 6.2 reading to the elevation of 94 for a total of 100.20. Subtract the 100.2 from the 107.2 for a total of 7

47
Q

A subcontractor bids a unit price of \$4.00 per square foot to place and finish fiber mesh concrete. The fiber mesh concrete cost the contractor \$82 per cubic yard. Regular concrete is \$75 per cubic yard and requires steel mesh to be installed, which cost \$.10 per square foot. The subcontractor charges \$3.75 per square foot to place and finish regular concrete with still mesh included. What is the LEAST expensive cost for the contractor to provide a 500 square foot slab that is 4 inches thick.

A

\$2,510 Construction Math: Always round up. They are trying to trip you up on this question. The first sentence states what work the contractor has bid on (providing and placing fibermesh concrete only). The next statement about the cost of regular concrete

48
Q

A contractor bids a project based on: equipment equals \$1,000; Direct labor equals \$3,000; Material equals \$6,000; Project Overhead equals 20% of direct labor; General Overhead equals 10% of direct labor and materials; profit margin equals 10% of all costs. The owner offers to pay \$12,000. If the contractor accepts this offer, what would be the contractor’s anticipated profit or loss?

A

A loss of \$778 Equip, Labor and Materials = \$10,000 Project Overhead = \$600 General Overhead = \$900 Sub Total (Costs) = \$11,500 Profit Margin = Costs / (1-profit percentage) \$11,500 / 1-10% (or .9) = \$12,777.77 For a handy video about Profit MARGIN vs. Profit MARKUP - https://youtu.be/BCo5i1mMO3E

49
Q

The earth removed from a hole has a volume of 45 cubic yards and is found to have a compacted volume of 36 cubic yards. What is the percentage of shrinkage for this volume of earth?

A

20% The difference between the amount removed and it’s compacted volume is 9 cubic yards. When you divide that number (9) into the amount removed (45 cubic yards), the answer is .20% 9 / 45 = .2 or 20%

50
Q

A subcontractor bids a unit cost of \$19.50 per square foot for labor and materials to provide and install ceramic tile. The cost for the subcontractor to do the tile work breaks down to 50% split for profit and material. There is 2500 sq. ft. of floor tile in the project. The owner wants to upgrade the tile. The material will increase \$2.25 per square foot. What is the amount of the change order to the original contract amount to upgrade the floor tile? The contract allows a 20% markup.

A

\$6,750 The line in this question about the 50% split is irrelevant to finding the answer. Multiply the increase per square foot by the square footage to get the total increase amount.\$2.25 (increase amount) X 2,500 (sq. ft) = \$5,625 Add the 20% markup by

51
Q

A rectangular building with a gable roof will be 80’ x 36’. The rafters will be spaced 32” on center. How many total rafters will be needed?

A

62 80 foot X 12inches = 960 total inches. 960 divided by 32 inches o.c.= 30 rafters. Need 2 rafters for the 36’ span = 60 Rafters. Plus the first outside set of rafters = 62.

52
Q

An 18’ long, 2” x 4” fir stud wall has double top plates, a single bottom plate and fourteen 8’ studs. Fir costs \$520 per thousand board feet. How much does the lumber for this wall costs? Do not allow for waste.

A

\$58.24 Board feet calculation is on page 63 in the Carpentry book. Number of pieces X thickness (inches) X width (inches) X length (feet) all divided by 12 18 x 3 = 54 54/8 = 6.75 = number of pieces for top and bottom plates (round up to 7 pieces) 14 studs So 21 pieces total 21 x 2 x 4 x 8 = 1344 1344/12 = 112 board feet total 1000 (board feet for pricing) / 112 (actual board feet) = 8.93 \$520 (cost per 1000 bf) / 8.93 = \$58.23 OR \$520 / 1000 = \$0.52 per board foot x 112 = \$58.24