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Flashcards in Estrogen and other hormones Deck (15)
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0

How many days is the Luteal Phase?

14 days

1

How many days are in the Follicular phase?

Variable. The total days in the monthly cycle depends on the number of days in Follicular phase. If F phase is 7 days then total cycle is 21 days. If F phase is 14 days then total cycle is 28 days.

2

Estrone

-E1
-1/8th binding compared to Estradiol (E2)
-Predominant estrogen post menopausal
-Aromatized (CYP19) from Androstenedione (also from E2)

3

Estrone-sulfate

-The inactive reserve form of estrone (storage)
-Can be stored in fat tissues

4

Estradiol

-E2
-Most potent estrogen
-Premenopausal
-Produced in the ovaries
-Derived from estrone and testosterone
-Assists in female reproduction, sexual development, bone health, arterial bloodflow and neuroprotection

5

Estriol

-E3
-Least potent binding (1/80 of estradiol)
-Derived from E1 and E2
-Pregnancy estrogen

6

Estrogen in Men

-Produced from testicular and adrenal androgen precursors
-Important for brain function, cardiovascular and bone health

7

High testosterone in men

-Reduced bioavailable testosterone, libido and muscle tone
-Increased fat tissue, gynecomastia
-Increased risk of DM, MI, BPH and cancers

8

What hormone in follicular phase?

FSH triggers Estrogen

9

What hormone in luteal phase?

LH stimulates Progesterone

10

Low estrogen in men causes what problems?

-Increased bone turnover and osteopenia
-Glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia
-Abnormal lipid profiles

11

Progesterone

-Pro hormone and pregnancy hormone
-Promotes cellular immunity
-Counters proliferative effects of estrogen on endometrium
-Down regulates estrogen receptors
-Neuroprotective, promotes myelination
-Anti-inflammatory, relaxes smooth muscle

12

Aldosterone

-Mineralocorticoid: maintains normal blood pressure by regulating sodium, potassium and fluid balance in the body
-Lower levels with: high salt diet, certain medications, Addison's disease, 21 hydroxylase deficiency (Congenital adrenal hyperplasia) leading to hypotension
-High levels with:!salt restriction, diuretic use, strenuous exercise and certain medications leads to hypertension

13

Cortisol – catabolic

-Maintains blood glucose levels during stress reactions (gluconeogenesis). This leads to additional glucose to brain, heart, lungs and skeletal muscle
-Promotes hepatic protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis: stimulates protein catabolism elsewhere in the body
-Stimulates glycogenolysis and lipolysis
-Participates with aldosterone in sodium reabsorption which leads to maintenance of perfusion pressures to critical organs during stress
-Anti-inflammatory – Down regulates phospholipase A2, inflammatory cytokines
-Inhibitory feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary: down regulation of CRH and ACTH
-Cortisol is highest in the morning with gradual decline throughout the day

14

DHEA – anabolic

-Prohormone for sex steroids
-Anti-glucocorticoid
-Immune supporting
-Anti-atherogenic, lowers serum triglycerides
-Enhances insulin sensitivity: anti-obesity affect
-Maintains tissue strength and repair, supports bone density
-Neuroprotective: enhances memory
-Maximum values age 20-30 yrs then decline