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Pharmacology Test #5 > Estrogens > Flashcards

Flashcards in Estrogens Deck (34)
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1

What does estrogen do in the body?

development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues; regulation in CNs; effects in peripheral tissues

2

What does progesterone do in the body?

Development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues; maintenance of pregnancy; effects in other tissues (brain)

3

Most potent estrogen in humans

17beta-estradiol

4

Where is 17b-estradiol produced?

mostly in the ovaries in premenopausal women; synthesized most in the placenta during pregnancy

5

Estrogen and progesterone are produced by

granulosa cells and the corpus luteum

6

Early follicular phase

estrogen suppresses the production of FSH

7

Late follicular phase

Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the surge of LH and FSH -> ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum

8

Luteal phase

Estrogen and progesterone suppresses the production of LH and FSH

9

What happens if pregnancy does not occur?

corpus luteum degenerates; production of estrogen and progesterone by corpus luteum declines

10

What happens if pregnancy occurs?

fertilized egg/embryo secretes hCG; hCG acts like LH to stimulate corpus luteum to produce progesterone during the first trimester; higher progesterone levels support maintenance of the endometrium

11

Estron and estriol are synthesized

in the liver and in peripheral tissues

12

Natural estrogens

17beta-estradiol
Estrone
Estriol

13

Synthetic estrogens

Drugs with estrogenic activities

14

Phytoestrogens

Estrogen-mimetic compounds in plants (flavonoids)

15

Environmental estrogens

Compounds used in the manufacture of plastics (bisphenols, alkyphenols, phthalate phenols)

16

Metabolism and excretion of estrogen

Metabolized in the liver mostly and excreted to the bile and to the urine

17

Physiologic effects of estrogen

Female maturation, endometrial effects, metabolic and CV effects, blood coagulation, CNS/mood

18

Clinical uses of estrogens

Postmenopausal hormone therapy in post-menopausal women, osteoporosis

19

Adverse effects of estrogens

Uterine bleeding, endometrial carcinoma, breast cancer, thromboembolism, nausea, headache, fluid retention, weight gain

20

17alpha-alkylated estrogens

Mestranol;
Quinestrol;
Ethinyl estradiol

21

17alpha-alkylation prevents

conversion to estron -> enhances oral bioavailability and increases the half life

22

Estrogenic esters

Estradiol valerate
Estradiol cypionate

23

Esterification decreases

solubility and slows the absorption -> prolongs the action

24

Conjugated estrogens

Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate

25

Where do you get conjugated estrogens from

collected from pregnant mare urine

26

Non-steroidal estrogens

Diethyl stilbestrol
Chlorotrianisene

27

Diethyl stilbestrol

used in advanced prostate cancer

28

Chlorotrianisene

postpartum breast engorgement; menopause symptoms; prostate cancer

29

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)

Tamoxifen
Toremifene
Raloxifene
Clomiphene

30

Tamoxifen

partial estrogen agonist; antiestrogen and estrogenic actions; treatment of breast cancer; prevents breast cancer in high risk women