Flashcards in Estrogens Deck (34)
What does estrogen do in the body?
development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues; regulation in CNs; effects in peripheral tissues
What does progesterone do in the body?
Development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues; maintenance of pregnancy; effects in other tissues (brain)
Most potent estrogen in humans
Where is 17b-estradiol produced?
mostly in the ovaries in premenopausal women; synthesized most in the placenta during pregnancy
Estrogen and progesterone are produced by
granulosa cells and the corpus luteum
Early follicular phase
estrogen suppresses the production of FSH
Late follicular phase
Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the surge of LH and FSH -> ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
Estrogen and progesterone suppresses the production of LH and FSH
What happens if pregnancy does not occur?
corpus luteum degenerates; production of estrogen and progesterone by corpus luteum declines
What happens if pregnancy occurs?
fertilized egg/embryo secretes hCG; hCG acts like LH to stimulate corpus luteum to produce progesterone during the first trimester; higher progesterone levels support maintenance of the endometrium
Estron and estriol are synthesized
in the liver and in peripheral tissues
Drugs with estrogenic activities
Estrogen-mimetic compounds in plants (flavonoids)
Compounds used in the manufacture of plastics (bisphenols, alkyphenols, phthalate phenols)
Metabolism and excretion of estrogen
Metabolized in the liver mostly and excreted to the bile and to the urine
Physiologic effects of estrogen
Female maturation, endometrial effects, metabolic and CV effects, blood coagulation, CNS/mood
Clinical uses of estrogens
Postmenopausal hormone therapy in post-menopausal women, osteoporosis
Adverse effects of estrogens
Uterine bleeding, endometrial carcinoma, breast cancer, thromboembolism, nausea, headache, fluid retention, weight gain
conversion to estron -> enhances oral bioavailability and increases the half life
solubility and slows the absorption -> prolongs the action
Where do you get conjugated estrogens from
collected from pregnant mare urine
used in advanced prostate cancer
postpartum breast engorgement; menopause symptoms; prostate cancer
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)