Pharmacology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Test #5 > Pharmacology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones Deck (107)
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1

Three groups that the hormones of the anterior-pituitary can be classified into

1. Somatotropic hormones (growth hormone, prolactin)
2. Glycoprotein hormones (LH, FSH, TSH)
3. Pro-opiomelanocortin peptides (ACTH)

2

Five different hormone-producing cell types that have been identified in the anterior pituitary

1. Somatotroph
2. Lactotroph (Mammotroph)
3. Thyrotroph
4. Gonadotroph
5. Corticotroph-lipotroph

3

thyroid hypofunction

very sensitive to cold; lack of sweating; reduced rate of metabolism; poor accumulation of radioiodine by thyroid

4

adrenal deficiency (may result in death)

sensitivity to physical stress; increased rate of infection; frequent episodes of collapse

5

In children, hypopituitarism (hypopituitary dwarfism) is usually the result of

failure of pituitary to develop normally during embryonic life

6

Is the hypopituitary dwarf mentally retarded?

No

7

What can help differentiate hypopituitary dwarfism from other types of dwarfism?

the responsiveness of thyroid and adrenal glands to stimulation by trophic hormones

8

Important feature of acromegaly

excessive growth hormone secretion (by pituitary tumor)

9

Characteristic of Cushing's syndrome

oversecretion of ACTH

10

Increased secretion of prolactin in women leads to

amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and infertility

11

Increased secretion of prolactin in men leads to

impotence

12

Hypersecretion of gonadotrophins can result in what in children?

can result in precocious sexual development in children

13

Disorders and dysfunctions of target organs such as gonads, thyroid gland, adrenal gland can lead to

the release of pituitary from the negative feedback control and results in excessive secretion of various pituitary hormones

14

Most abundant active agent synthesized in the anterior pituitary

Growth hormone

15

Stimulation of growth hormone secretion

glucose decrease, FFA decrease, aa increase (arginine); fasting; prolonged caloric deprivation; stage IV sleep; exercise; stress; insulin-induced hypoglycemia etc.

16

Inhibition of growth hormone secretion

somatostatin; glucose increase; FFA increase; somatomedins; growth hormone; beta-agonists; cortisol; obesity; pregnancy; old age

17

Growth hormones causes

proportional increase in size (growth) of almost all organs in the body; it leads to increase in weight - cell proliferation rather than hypertrophy

18

In hypopituitary dwarfs, administration of human growth hormones results in

proportionate growth as in normal individuals

19

Gonadal steroids promote

epiphysial fusion

20

Abnormal growth of hypopituitary dwarfs with continuous GH administration

long limbs and short trunk

21

Preparations of growth hormone

Somatropin; Somatrem; Nutropin Depot;

22

Somatropin

Humatrope; Serotism; Genotropin, Nutropin, Saizen
recombinant GH injected SC in evening; weakly antigenic; reaches peak levels 2-4 hrs after injection

23

Somatrem

Protropin:
recombinant methionyl-growth hormone injected SC in evening; more antigenic than somatropin

24

Nutropin Depot

encapsulated form of somatropin for intramuscular injection once or twice per month

25

Absorption, fate and excretion of growth hormone

absorbed well following adminstration; maximal concentrations achieved within 2-6 hours; removed largely by liver and kidney; half-life of clearance is 15 to 30 minutes

26

Describe the GH receptor

monomer with a single membrane spanning domain that lacks intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity; dimerizes upon binding growth hormone

27

Dimerization of GH results in

the recruitment and activation of the JAK proteins which catalyze the phosphorylation and activation of PI-3 kinase, STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways

28

GH induces the production of

insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) known as somatomedins in the liver

29

Primary source of circulating IGFs

liver

30

Primary mediator of the actions of growth hormone

IGF-1