Name 4 demographic factors.
Age, gender, birth rate, death rate, occupation, religion.
Name 4 types of questionnaires.
Yes/no, rhetoric, open, closed, scales.
Name 4 socio-demographic factors.
Age, gender, ethnicity, class.
What is the Townsend Index Score?
Index of material deprivation (unemployed, houses not owner occupied, overcrowding, household without car)
Dentist owed duty of care: there is usual and normal practice
The duty was breached: dentist did not adopt that practice
The course the dentist adopted was one which no dentist of ordinary skill would have taken if acting with ordinary care
Breach caused or contributed to damage: harm resulting from dental treatment is negligent if the dentist’s practice does not meet standard of care
This damage was reasonably foreseeable and had negative consequences and effects
For a person to have capacity they must: Have the ability to decide (to act) To make a reasoned decision To communicate a decision To understand a decision To retain the memory of a decision
Definition of informed consent.
Voluntary and continuing permission of an appropriately informed individual.
Individual has capacity to consent and has sufficient knowledge and information (the purpose, nature, likely effects and risk of a treatment) to make a decision.
Must be aware if likelihood of success of procedure and any alternatives.
What are the principles of consent?
Informed consent - person has enough information to make the decision
Voluntary decision making - person has made the decision themselves, and has not be coerced or manipulated
Ability - person has ability and capacity to make an informed decision
Valid - consent must also be valid
Describe the consequences of oral health with depression.
Self neglect - affects routine oral hygiene and adherence to advice is typically poor
Comfort eating - snacking, increased consumption of fermentable carbs - increased likelihood of caries
Antidepressants - reduced salivary flow, xerostomia
Decreased immune response - increased risk of periodontal disease, independent of oral hygiene
How may stress disorders affect oral health?
Physiological: altered immune response (affects susceptibility to peridontitis etc), altered salivary secretion, smoking/drinking/eating/trauma
Pathological: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
Burning mouth syndrome - stress disorder, idiopathic
What is the Likert scale?
Five point scale which allows individual to express how much they agree or disagree with a particular statement.
Strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree
What are the three core symptoms of depression?
anhedonia (inability to enjoy experiences you used to find enjoyable)
What is dysthymia?
mild chronic depression, has depressive symptoms but not severe enough to meet a diagnosis of depression
How do you screen for anxiety and depression?
use the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS)
What are the dental consequences of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?
erosion - affect palatal, labial and occlusal surfaces of teeth, can also be contributed by diet and reduced salivary flow
parotid gland hypertrophy
saliva - bicarbonate concentration is lowered (reduced buffering capacity), reduced resting flow rates in bulimia nervosa