Define ethical behaviour
Ethical behaviours are the MORAL PRINCIPLES that someone abides by when deciding what is right or wrong, good or bad. IN PRACTICE it is the good, bad, right, wrong, proper or improper DECISIONS made by a person in the CONTEXT OF GOVERNING MORAL CODE.
What are the 4 views of ethical behaviour?
Individualism, Utilitarian, Justice, Moral-Rights.
The main commitment is towards long-term self interest and will lie and deceive by stretching the boundaries of the law to achieve this.
The decision or behaviour is used for the greater good of the most people. An examples is where a manager may sack 30 per cent of employees so the remaining 70 per cent can keep their job and keep the organisation profitable.
Explain Justice view
The decision or behaviour shows FAIRNESS AND IMPARTIALITY. An example is if a senior manager was under investigation for sexual harassment, would a junior manager receive the same hearing. Or do women with the same qualifications as men, receive the same job opportunity during interviews.
Explain Moral-rights view
The decision or behaviour MAINTAINS RIGHTS OF ALL HUMAN BEINGS. It can relate to rights of free speech, health and safety, privacy.
Explain ethical dilemma
This occurs when our behaviours or the behaviours we witness conflicts with our values and beliefs, and a dilemma occurs when action must be taken but there is not clear ‘ethically right’ option.
Define Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
The obligation of the organisation to act in a way that serves both, its own interests and the interests of its many external stakeholders.
Explain cultural relativism and universalism
Cultural relativism suggests that there is no one right way to behave and it depends on the cultures context. Universalism suggests that if something is not ethically accepted in your home environment, it should not be tolerated anywhere else. Critics believe this is a form of trying to impose ethical standards on others. It is argued that a mixture of both can work well, example being an Australian organisation in Asia that has child workers may provide schooling for the children.
Explain the 4 of strategies corporate social responsibility.
Proactive strategy - taking leadership in social initiatives, eg. a strategy might be charitable contributions.
Accommodative strategy - Doing the minimum ethically required. Example would be an oil company who conducts a clean up after an oil spill yet provides minimal effort into stopping further oil spills.
Defensive strategy - Doing the minmum legally required. If criticised , intentional wrongdoing is likely denied.
Obstructionist strategy - Resists to social demands and sticks with economic priorities.