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Flashcards in Ethics Deck (11):

Define ethics

a community’s norms and rules of right and wrong;
a body of religious doctrine about right and wrong;
the rational study of right and wrong;
the standards of right and wrong that ‘ought’ to be;
a philosophical inquiry that seeks to explain and analyse questions of right and wrong.


Normative ethics is?

standards of right/wrong, good/bad conduct & character that ought to be accepted by people


positive ethics?

what SHOULD be not what IS


Define cultural relativism

the argument that all ethical values, norms & rules are mere opinions or prejudices in a particular place or time

neither culture is more moral than the other; just different


define morality?

extent to which they/you follow their community or group's ethical values, norms & principles


What does cultural relativism imply?

that we cannot compare communities, cultures or traditions because there is no common standard by which an evaluation can be made.
If we do try to rank and compare we will do so from the perspective of our own tradition. imposing our 'ethics'

No common morality across all societies


ethical egoism is?

an approach that focuses on what is in your best interests. It is an approach that suggests that you should do whatever it is that is good for you over the long run.


Utalitarianism is?

suggests that people should base their moral decisions on what will produce the greatest good for greatest number of people


Kant(ianism) is?

somethings are wrong regardless of their consequences
focuses on intentions as basis for determining moral actions
"good will"


empirical universalism?

there are some common values held globally in all communities. therefore we can use as guides particularly when we must interact with people from other cultures.
Directly challenges cultural relativism


A decent person is?

someone who would rather suffer than cause others to suffer.
Choice to be kind