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what are performance enhancing drugs?

chemical substances that change the chemical balance of the body when taken, affecting the performer's ability and providing an unfair advantage when performing


what is doping?

the use of illegal substances (PEDs) by athletes or sports performers in order to improve their performances


what is the meaning of ethical?

to do with morals or principles; ethical behaviour involves high moral standards, being honest and following the correct code of conduct


why do performers use PEDs?

- to be the best- regardless of the morality of it
- to improve their performance
- to build muscle faster than in training
- to achieve success, rewards, new contracts, sponsorship
- to calm themselves before an event
- to recover quickly or mask their pain
- to even things up with other athletes already using PEDs
- because of influence of others (eg. other athletes, coaches, training regime)
- because natural ability is sometimes not good enough


what is the affect of Beta blockers?

- prevent adrenaline in order to keep heart rate low
- calming and relaxing affect
- reduce anxiety
associated with: archery, diving, shooting, snooker


what is the affect of anabolic steroids?

- increase muscle mass fast
- let athlete train harder for longer
- increase power and strength
- speed up recovery time
associated with: athletics, baseball, cycling, football, rugby


what is the affect of diuretics?

- increase the amount of water passed out of the body
- a way of reducing weight quickly
- mask other PEDs being used
associated with: boxing, equestrian, gymnastics, jockey


what is the effects of stimulants?

- affect the central nervous system
- reduce pain
- increase alertness: mental and physical
associated with: athletics, american football, swimming


what are the risks of beta blockers?

- reduce blood pressure
- cause tiredness
- heart failure
- depression


what are the risks of anabolic steroids?

- aggressive behaviour
- heart disease
- high blood pressure
- liver problems
- effect on hormones


what are the risks of diuretics?

- dehydration
- weakening of the muscles
- kidney problems
- nausea


what are the risks of stimulants?

- addictive
- high blood pressure
- strokes
- increased risk of injury as pain is surpressed


why are the reasons for taking PEDs not good enough?

using PEDs means you do not have the natural ability or dedication to become the best without cheating


what is the World anti-doping agency?

an independent agency that monitors all sporting activities, across the world, providing tests on performers and educating through scientific research


how do organisations help prevent drug use?

- random selection- athletes can be called be called for drug testing at any time, in or out of competition
- blood testing- athletes are provided with a sealed kit in which to place two samples (A and B); if the kit has been tampered with, it must be returned
- urine sampling- similar to blood testing, although the sampling must be given in view of an official of the same gender
- sample testing- samples are sent to a registered lab where sample A is tested; if a positive result is found, the athlete is notified before sample B is also tested
- sanctions- if both tests are positive, the relevant sporting organisations are notified; they decide what penalties or bans to impose


what are the three main reasons for banning PEDs?

- health risks
- morality
- unfair advantage


what is blood doping?

the misuse of techniques and/or substances to increase a performer's red blood cell count, eg. by using the hormone EPO or by injecting oxygenated blood into a performer before an event


what is EPO (erythropoietin)?

a hormone produced in the kidney that can also be artificially produced; it helps stimulate the production of red blood cells to carry more oxygen with haemoglobin to the muscles


how is blood doping carried out?

- blood is taken 3-4 weeks before a competition, usually at a point where haemoglobin levels are high
- the blood is frozen to maintain the high haemoglobin levels that will produce more red blood cells
- 1 or 2 days before the competition, the blood is thawed and then reintroduced to the performer via a blood transfusion
- this will increase the number of red blood cells in the body and the capacity to carry more oxygen
- the performer's aerobic capacity is increased and they can perform for longer without fatigue


what are the potential side effects of blood doping?

- blood becoming more viscous (thicker)
- increased chance of heart attacks, strokes, pulmonary embolism (clot on the lung)
- risk of infection (when sharing blood)
- kidney disease (through EPO)


what is real risk?

the amount of danger that actually exists in the activity


what is perceived risk?

an individual's subjective or personal judgement about the dangers of an activity


what can risks be caused by?

- lack of preparation
- limited fitness
- behaviour of others and yourself
- weather
- limited level of skill
- inadequate facilities and equipment


how do you conduct a thorough risk assessment?

- identify the risks. What are the real risks? what are the perceived risks?
- identify who is at risk. Who is at risk of harm and in what way?
- evaluate the risks and decide on what to do next
- record your findings
- review your processes. What was a success? How could you improve it?


how is risk calculated?

severity x likelihood


how can risks be reduced/prevented?

- wearing protective clothing and footwear to prevent injuries
- lifting and carrying equipment safely and correctly
- using a warm-up to prepare and a cool-down to return body back to normal after an activity
- creating suitable levels of competition to make sure everyone can participate and not be at a disadvantage
- following rules and instructions to encourage fair play and prevent confrontation


what are minor injuries?

injuries that can be dealt with at the scene of the incident by a first aider, such as cuts, bruises and grazes


what is soft tissue?

soft parts of the body including tendons, ligaments, skin, fat, muscles, nerves and blood vessels; hard tissue is bones and teeth


what is a blister?

a small pocket of fluid that forms in the upper layers of skin after it has been damaged. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid (serum), but may be filled with blood (blood blisters) or pus if inflames or infected


what is the cause of blisters?

repeated rubbing of the skin or burning