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Flashcards in social and cultural influences Deck (43)
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what are the main considerations for the location of sports facilities?

- expected use and demand (where facilities are high in demand)
- cost- space is a premium in urban areas
- transport- road structure, public transport, car parking
- accessibility- the facility need by the community, planning permission issues


what is the role of private sector sports providers?

- make profit
- funded facilities set up by private companies
- often members-only clubs
- members pay fees to join and use facilities
- likely to be more expensive
- include sports/fitness clubs, gold and tennis clubs
- some schools pay to use private sports clubs


what is the role of local authority sports providers (public sector)?

- promote sport
- funded facilities paid for by national and local govt. out of taxes and national lottery funding
- usually owned by LA but not always run by them
- available to everyone, relatively cheap
- include sports/leisure centres, swimming pools and outdoor pitches
- some schools share facilities with LA
- LA encourage participation in sports by employing sport development teams including school sports coordinators who arrange events, assist with coaching and develop links with clubs in the area of schools


what is the role of schools in supporting participation?

- teach PE within the national curriculum
- exam courses: GCSE, A-level, D of E etc.
- nomination for representative honour
- facilities
- extra-curricular activities
- attitude of staff (role models)
- links with sports clubs


what are the reasons for not participating in physical recreation?

human reasons:
- medical condition
- psychological reasons
- lack of interest
- lack of knowledge
Socio-economic reasons:
- family commitments
- time commitments
- transport cost
- equipment cost
- admission cost
- lack of available facilities
- institutional barriers/religion


what are the reasons for participation in physical recreation?

health reasons:
- improve body shape
- look good
- feel good
- medical reason
- coping with stress
- aesthetic
- physical challenge
- achievement
- competition
- co-operation
- friendship


what is outdoor recreation?

activity associated with challenge in the natural environment


what is physical recreation?

playing for intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards


what is the definition of recreation?

something you do in your leisure time because you want to


what determines the growth of leisure activities?

- advances in technology
- people working shorter days
- having longer holidays
- more unemployed
- improvements in health care (live longer)
- growth of facilities


what factors determine what people do during their leisure time?

- age
- interests
- social circumstances
- facilities available (where they live)


what are the disadvantages of hosting global events?

- target for terrorism (bad reputation)
- high cost (debt)
- social unrest- political conflict
- invest in world class facilities
- not specialist in a sport- reduce standard of game/athletes
- home crowd (pressure to perform)
- potential for racism


what are the benefits of hosting global events?

- tourism boost economy
- home advantage (confidence)
- sense of community
- regenerate rural areas
- employment
- attention- shows national prestige
- mass participation
- local business and transport gain
- govt. invest in facilities to improve standards


what is the definition of sponsorship?

the support for a sport, sports event, sports organisation or competitor by an outside body or person for the mutual benefit for both parties


what are the factors that determine excellence in sport?

- sponsorship
- professional/amateur
- time
- culture
- age
- location
- fitness+health
- access to sport


how are different social groups given equal opportunities in sport (social equality)?

- role of local community groups in developing traditional sports and activities for ethnic minority groups
- the role of local groups in developing a sense of social inclusion through sporting activity programmes
- cultural attitudes, the relaxation of certain conditions to allow participation for certain cultures
- more affordable sports eg. (municipal golf courses)


how are women being given equal opportunities in sports?

- women encouraged to participate in sport
- money for facilities, growth in popularity or certain activities targeted at women
- recognition that women can compete in events which, in the past, were considered too strenuous for women eg. marathon, triple jump, pole vault
- men and women competing on equal terms eg. equestrian


why do certain countries develop excellence in specific sports?

geographical reasons:
- mountain=alpine sports
- altitude=long distance
- coastal=aquatic
- warm=outdoor (cricket)
- cold=skating/skiing
- very hot=difficult for athletes
- society passes on sports to next gen
- local role models created (brazil football)
- ethnicity (high proportion of FT fibres(Jamaica sprint))
- more money=better facilities and coaches
- poorer countries struggle to compete


what are the advantages of sports colleges?

- unconditional offer
- accommodation
- extra training time
- access to top level coaching, facilities, nutritionists
- national level competition
- tuition fees reduced


what is the role of sports colleges?

- offer educational support to young athletes
- enhances reputation of uni/college
- develop sporting talents
- for those who cannot afford costs/not motivated educationally


what are scholarships?

some colleges would offer places to talented athletes, allowing them lots of time to train and minimise studying


what is the role of voluntary organisation leisure/sport providers?

- meet a local need
- not run for profit
- officers are rarely paid
- eg. local hockey club, rambling society, large national charities (the youth hostels)
- usually run from local scout and youth groups, places of worship (churches)


what are sponsorships?

a company pays the athlete expenses (often much more than they actually spend) in return for the athlete to wear the companies name or logo


what are trust funds?

any prize money is paid into a trust fund from which the athlete can take living expenses and have the rest when they retire


what is the definition of leisure time?

the free time a person has when not working or sleeping


what are the facilities for physical activity in rural areas?

- remote, unlike to have many purpose built sports facilities
- may have natural facilities eg. sailing, hill walking, rock climbing etc.


what are the drawbacks of media coverage?

- more pressure on managers and teams to do well
- players adopt a 'win at all cost' attitude rather than playing for enjoyment
- some may resort to cheating or the use of drugs
- sports stars have less privacy
- media may demand changes in the law/rules of some sports
- critical on refs/official decisions


what are the impacts of T.V on sport?

- sport occupies a large % of viewing time
- TV allows people to see biggest competitions in the world
- event/match analysis allows the viewer to see the events in closer detail eg. slo-mo replays
- TV companies contribute to event prize money
- TV companies often decide, due to financial support, which sports will be shown
- minority sports can be well publicised or ignored by TV executives


what are the positive influences of media coverage?

- promotes sport
- more people can see, hear, read about sport
- inform and entertain
- creates 'sports stars'/role models who can have positive effects on youngsters
- if seen on TV can attract sponsorship, improving of facilities/training equipment


how are athletes with disabilities given equal opportunities in sport?

- rapid expansion of participation
- wider variety of activities available and greater willingness to adapt sports to meet people's needs
- improvement in facilities
- increase in number of specialist coaches available
- open competitions eg. shooting, archery or creation of competitions where able-bodied and disabled may enter as a pair eg. European dance championships
- greater social acceptability of people with disabilities
- increase in number of media role models
- disability games alongside able-bodied