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Flashcards in social and cultural influences Deck (43):
1

what are the main considerations for the location of sports facilities?

- expected use and demand (where facilities are high in demand)
- cost- space is a premium in urban areas
- transport- road structure, public transport, car parking
- accessibility- the facility need by the community, planning permission issues

2

what is the role of private sector sports providers?

- make profit
- funded facilities set up by private companies
- often members-only clubs
- members pay fees to join and use facilities
- likely to be more expensive
- include sports/fitness clubs, gold and tennis clubs
- some schools pay to use private sports clubs

3

what is the role of local authority sports providers (public sector)?

- promote sport
- funded facilities paid for by national and local govt. out of taxes and national lottery funding
- usually owned by LA but not always run by them
- available to everyone, relatively cheap
- include sports/leisure centres, swimming pools and outdoor pitches
- some schools share facilities with LA
- LA encourage participation in sports by employing sport development teams including school sports coordinators who arrange events, assist with coaching and develop links with clubs in the area of schools

4

what is the role of schools in supporting participation?

- teach PE within the national curriculum
- exam courses: GCSE, A-level, D of E etc.
- nomination for representative honour
- facilities
- extra-curricular activities
- attitude of staff (role models)
- links with sports clubs

5

what are the reasons for not participating in physical recreation?

human reasons:
- medical condition
- psychological reasons
- lack of interest
- lack of knowledge
Socio-economic reasons:
- family commitments
- time commitments
- transport cost
- equipment cost
- admission cost
- lack of available facilities
- institutional barriers/religion

6

what are the reasons for participation in physical recreation?

health reasons:
- improve body shape
- look good
- feel good
- medical reason
- coping with stress
Enjoyment:
- aesthetic
- physical challenge
- achievement
- competition
- co-operation
- friendship

7

what is outdoor recreation?

activity associated with challenge in the natural environment

8

what is physical recreation?

playing for intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards

9

what is the definition of recreation?

something you do in your leisure time because you want to

10

what determines the growth of leisure activities?

- advances in technology
- people working shorter days
- having longer holidays
- more unemployed
- improvements in health care (live longer)
- growth of facilities

11

what factors determine what people do during their leisure time?

- age
- interests
- social circumstances
- facilities available (where they live)

12

what are the disadvantages of hosting global events?

- target for terrorism (bad reputation)
- high cost (debt)
- social unrest- political conflict
- invest in world class facilities
- not specialist in a sport- reduce standard of game/athletes
- home crowd (pressure to perform)
- potential for racism

13

what are the benefits of hosting global events?

- tourism boost economy
- home advantage (confidence)
- sense of community
- regenerate rural areas
- employment
- attention- shows national prestige
- mass participation
- local business and transport gain
- govt. invest in facilities to improve standards

14

what is the definition of sponsorship?

the support for a sport, sports event, sports organisation or competitor by an outside body or person for the mutual benefit for both parties

15

what are the factors that determine excellence in sport?

- sponsorship
- professional/amateur
- time
- culture
- age
- location
- fitness+health
- access to sport

16

how are different social groups given equal opportunities in sport (social equality)?

- role of local community groups in developing traditional sports and activities for ethnic minority groups
- the role of local groups in developing a sense of social inclusion through sporting activity programmes
- cultural attitudes, the relaxation of certain conditions to allow participation for certain cultures
- more affordable sports eg. (municipal golf courses)

17

how are women being given equal opportunities in sports?

- women encouraged to participate in sport
- money for facilities, growth in popularity or certain activities targeted at women
- recognition that women can compete in events which, in the past, were considered too strenuous for women eg. marathon, triple jump, pole vault
- men and women competing on equal terms eg. equestrian

18

why do certain countries develop excellence in specific sports?

geographical reasons:
- mountain=alpine sports
- altitude=long distance
- coastal=aquatic
climate:
- warm=outdoor (cricket)
- cold=skating/skiing
- very hot=difficult for athletes
tradition/culture:
- society passes on sports to next gen
- local role models created (brazil football)
- ethnicity (high proportion of FT fibres(Jamaica sprint))
finance:
- more money=better facilities and coaches
- poorer countries struggle to compete

19

what are the advantages of sports colleges?

- unconditional offer
- accommodation
- extra training time
- access to top level coaching, facilities, nutritionists
- national level competition
- tuition fees reduced

20

what is the role of sports colleges?

- offer educational support to young athletes
- enhances reputation of uni/college
- develop sporting talents
- for those who cannot afford costs/not motivated educationally

21

what are scholarships?

some colleges would offer places to talented athletes, allowing them lots of time to train and minimise studying

22

what is the role of voluntary organisation leisure/sport providers?

- meet a local need
- not run for profit
- officers are rarely paid
- eg. local hockey club, rambling society, large national charities (the youth hostels)
- usually run from local scout and youth groups, places of worship (churches)

23

what are sponsorships?

a company pays the athlete expenses (often much more than they actually spend) in return for the athlete to wear the companies name or logo

24

what are trust funds?

any prize money is paid into a trust fund from which the athlete can take living expenses and have the rest when they retire

25

what is the definition of leisure time?

the free time a person has when not working or sleeping

26

what are the facilities for physical activity in rural areas?

- remote, unlike to have many purpose built sports facilities
- may have natural facilities eg. sailing, hill walking, rock climbing etc.

27

what are the drawbacks of media coverage?

- more pressure on managers and teams to do well
- players adopt a 'win at all cost' attitude rather than playing for enjoyment
- some may resort to cheating or the use of drugs
- sports stars have less privacy
- media may demand changes in the law/rules of some sports
- critical on refs/official decisions

28

what are the impacts of T.V on sport?

- sport occupies a large % of viewing time
- TV allows people to see biggest competitions in the world
- event/match analysis allows the viewer to see the events in closer detail eg. slo-mo replays
- TV companies contribute to event prize money
- TV companies often decide, due to financial support, which sports will be shown
- minority sports can be well publicised or ignored by TV executives

29

what are the positive influences of media coverage?

- promotes sport
- more people can see, hear, read about sport
- inform and entertain
- creates 'sports stars'/role models who can have positive effects on youngsters
- if seen on TV can attract sponsorship, improving of facilities/training equipment

30

how are athletes with disabilities given equal opportunities in sport?

- rapid expansion of participation
- wider variety of activities available and greater willingness to adapt sports to meet people's needs
- improvement in facilities
- increase in number of specialist coaches available
- open competitions eg. shooting, archery or creation of competitions where able-bodied and disabled may enter as a pair eg. European dance championships
- greater social acceptability of people with disabilities
- increase in number of media role models
- disability games alongside able-bodied

31

what are the facilities for physical activity in urban areas?

- leisure centres, sports stadiums, specialist sports clubs etc.
- urban area have high population therefore are high in demand
- excellent transport links
- parking may be an issue (limited space)

32

what is meant by sport development?

the promotion of sports activities for the community

33

what are the different levels of the sports development pyramid?

stage 1: foundation
stage 2: participation
stage 3: performance
stage 4: elite

34

what is the foundation stage of sports development?

- consists of beginners and younger people
- involves mass participation activities
- is about recreation and having fun
- involves learning and developing basic skills such as running, jumping and throwing
- is found at school age in PE lessons or in 'mini sports' activities

35

what is the participation stage of sports development?

- taking part in organised sporting activities at clubs and leisure centres
- being with friends and like-minded individuals who are there to enjoy playing sport
- having a more structured environment than in the foundation stage

36

what is the performance stage of sports development?

- the focus is on developing the level of performance towards the elite level
- participants will concentrate on one or two sports, developing specific skills
- training and competition become more regular and more important
- the emphasis is more on being professional and less about just having fun

37

what is the elite stage of sports development?

- performers now move from country/regional to national squads
- governing bodies are responsible for performer's development
- high levels of support are given to prepare the performers both physically and mentally through: coaching, medical care, equipment, diet an mentoring
- performers lead a lifestyle designed to maintain high levels of fitness- sacrifices are required as their lifestyle will centre around performing and competition
- performers will most likely be professional

38

what is a sports development officer?

a professional whose job is to identify and support a planned route for participants and performers through he four stages of the pyramid

39

what is the role of sports development officers?

- ensuring all sections of the community are aware of available activities and where they can go to get involved
- distributing information and promoting sport
- organising classes, programmes, coaching, club development and training
- liaising with schools, governing bodies, councils and everyone involved in sports development

40

what is a brand?

the creation of a recognisable image that widely identifies a product and differentiates it from its competitors

41

what are the disadvantages of sponsorship?

- sponsors can exert a strong influence on a sport, eg. by dictating rule changes, clothing requirements an timings of events
- sponsors tend to prefer high-profile, televised sports with charismatic stars. Minority sports find it much more difficult to attract sponsors
- sponsors can withdraw support if a performer's image is damaged
- performers are often required to spend time at a sponsor's event instead of resting for the next game/competition

42

what are the advantages of sponsors?

- the sponsor being linked to success ad glamour can raise their profile and status and increase the sales of their products
- the athlete receives free clothing, equipment and payment. Athletes can concentrate on training and playing and not have to worry about the money
- the sport receives additional funding on top of admission and competition entries, which allows them to develop coaching and community schemes
- the audience benefit when sponsors' money is used to improve spectator facilities

43

what different forms can sponsorship take?

- individual
- team and facility
- event