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Flashcards in social and cultural influences Deck (43)
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1
Q
what are the main considerations for the location of sports facilities?
A
- expected use and demand (where facilities are high in demand)
- cost- space is a premium in urban areas
- transport- road structure, public transport, car parking
- accessibility- the facility need by the community, planning permission issues
2
Q
what is the role of private sector sports providers?
A
- make profit
- funded facilities set up by private companies
- often members-only clubs
- members pay fees to join and use facilities
- likely to be more expensive
- include sports/fitness clubs, gold and tennis clubs
- some schools pay to use private sports clubs
3
Q
what is the role of local authority sports providers (public sector)?
A
- promote sport
- funded facilities paid for by national and local govt. out of taxes and national lottery funding
- usually owned by LA but not always run by them
- available to everyone, relatively cheap
- include sports/leisure centres, swimming pools and outdoor pitches
- some schools share facilities with LA
- LA encourage participation in sports by employing sport development teams including school sports coordinators who arrange events, assist with coaching and develop links with clubs in the area of schools
4
Q
what is the role of schools in supporting participation?
A
- teach PE within the national curriculum
- exam courses: GCSE, A-level, D of E etc.
- nomination for representative honour
- facilities
- extra-curricular activities
- attitude of staff (role models)
- links with sports clubs
5
Q
what are the reasons for not participating in physical recreation?
A
human reasons:
- medical condition
- psychological reasons
- lack of interest
- lack of knowledge
Socio-economic reasons:
- family commitments
- time commitments
- transport cost
- equipment cost
- admission cost
- lack of available facilities
- institutional barriers/religion
6
Q
what are the reasons for participation in physical recreation?
A
health reasons:
- improve body shape
- look good
- feel good
- medical reason
- coping with stress
Enjoyment:
- aesthetic
- physical challenge
- achievement
- competition
- co-operation
- friendship
7
Q
what is outdoor recreation?
A
activity associated with challenge in the natural environment
8
Q
what is physical recreation?
A
playing for intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards
9
Q
what is the definition of recreation?
A
something you do in your leisure time because you want to
10
Q
what determines the growth of leisure activities?
A
- advances in technology
- people working shorter days
- having longer holidays
- more unemployed
- improvements in health care (live longer)
- growth of facilities
11
Q
what factors determine what people do during their leisure time?
A
- age
- interests
- social circumstances
- facilities available (where they live)
12
Q
what are the disadvantages of hosting global events?
A
- target for terrorism (bad reputation)
- high cost (debt)
- social unrest- political conflict
- invest in world class facilities
- not specialist in a sport- reduce standard of game/athletes
- home crowd (pressure to perform)
- potential for racism
13
Q
what are the benefits of hosting global events?
A
- tourism boost economy
- home advantage (confidence)
- sense of community
- regenerate rural areas
- employment
- attention- shows national prestige
- mass participation
- local business and transport gain
- govt. invest in facilities to improve standards
14
Q
what is the definition of sponsorship?
A
the support for a sport, sports event, sports organisation or competitor by an outside body or person for the mutual benefit for both parties
15
Q
what are the factors that determine excellence in sport?
A
- sponsorship
- professional/amateur
- time
- culture
- age
- location
- fitness+health
- access to sport
16
Q
how are different social groups given equal opportunities in sport (social equality)?
A
- role of local community groups in developing traditional sports and activities for ethnic minority groups
- the role of local groups in developing a sense of social inclusion through sporting activity programmes
- cultural attitudes, the relaxation of certain conditions to allow participation for certain cultures
- more affordable sports eg. (municipal golf courses)
17
Q
how are women being given equal opportunities in sports?
A
- women encouraged to participate in sport
- money for facilities, growth in popularity or certain activities targeted at women
- recognition that women can compete in events which, in the past, were considered too strenuous for women eg. marathon, triple jump, pole vault
- men and women competing on equal terms eg. equestrian
18
Q
why do certain countries develop excellence in specific sports?
A
geographical reasons:
- mountain=alpine sports
- altitude=long distance
- coastal=aquatic
climate:
- warm=outdoor (cricket)
- cold=skating/skiing
- very hot=difficult for athletes
tradition/culture:
- society passes on sports to next gen
- local role models created (brazil football)
- ethnicity (high proportion of FT fibres(Jamaica sprint))
finance:
- more money=better facilities and coaches
- poorer countries struggle to compete
19
Q
what are the advantages of sports colleges?
A
- unconditional offer
- accommodation
- extra training time
- access to top level coaching, facilities, nutritionists
- national level competition
- tuition fees reduced
20
Q
what is the role of sports colleges?
A
- offer educational support to young athletes
- enhances reputation of uni/college
- develop sporting talents
- for those who cannot afford costs/not motivated educationally
21
Q
what are scholarships?
A
some colleges would offer places to talented athletes, allowing them lots of time to train and minimise studying
22
Q
what is the role of voluntary organisation leisure/sport providers?
A
- meet a local need
- not run for profit
- officers are rarely paid
- eg. local hockey club, rambling society, large national charities (the youth hostels)
- usually run from local scout and youth groups, places of worship (churches)
23
Q
what are sponsorships?
A
a company pays the athlete expenses (often much more than they actually spend) in return for the athlete to wear the companies name or logo
24
Q
what are trust funds?
A
any prize money is paid into a trust fund from which the athlete can take living expenses and have the rest when they retire
25
Q
what is the definition of leisure time?
A
the free time a person has when not working or sleeping
26
Q
what are the facilities for physical activity in rural areas?
A
- remote, unlike to have many purpose built sports facilities
- may have natural facilities eg. sailing, hill walking, rock climbing etc.
27
Q
what are the drawbacks of media coverage?
A
- more pressure on managers and teams to do well
- players adopt a 'win at all cost' attitude rather than playing for enjoyment
- some may resort to cheating or the use of drugs
- sports stars have less privacy
- media may demand changes in the law/rules of some sports
- critical on refs/official decisions
28
Q
what are the impacts of T.V on sport?
A
- sport occupies a large % of viewing time
- TV allows people to see biggest competitions in the world
- event/match analysis allows the viewer to see the events in closer detail eg. slo-mo replays
- TV companies contribute to event prize money
- TV companies often decide, due to financial support, which sports will be shown
- minority sports can be well publicised or ignored by TV executives
29
Q
what are the positive influences of media coverage?
A
- promotes sport
- more people can see, hear, read about sport
- inform and entertain
- creates 'sports stars'/role models who can have positive effects on youngsters
- if seen on TV can attract sponsorship, improving of facilities/training equipment
30
Q
how are athletes with disabilities given equal opportunities in sport?
A
- rapid expansion of participation
- wider variety of activities available and greater willingness to adapt sports to meet people's needs
- improvement in facilities
- increase in number of specialist coaches available
- open competitions eg. shooting, archery or creation of competitions where able-bodied and disabled may enter as a pair eg. European dance championships
- greater social acceptability of people with disabilities
- increase in number of media role models
- disability games alongside able-bodied
31
Q
what are the facilities for physical activity in urban areas?
A
- leisure centres, sports stadiums, specialist sports clubs etc.
- urban area have high population therefore are high in demand
- excellent transport links
- parking may be an issue (limited space)
32
Q
what is meant by sport development?
A
the promotion of sports activities for the community
33
Q
what are the different levels of the sports development pyramid?
A
stage 1: foundation
stage 2: participation
stage 3: performance
stage 4: elite
34
Q
what is the foundation stage of sports development?
A
- consists of beginners and younger people
- involves mass participation activities
- is about recreation and having fun
- involves learning and developing basic skills such as running, jumping and throwing
- is found at school age in PE lessons or in 'mini sports' activities
35
Q
what is the participation stage of sports development?
A
- taking part in organised sporting activities at clubs and leisure centres
- being with friends and like-minded individuals who are there to enjoy playing sport
- having a more structured environment than in the foundation stage
36
Q
what is the performance stage of sports development?
A
- the focus is on developing the level of performance towards the elite level
- participants will concentrate on one or two sports, developing specific skills
- training and competition become more regular and more important
- the emphasis is more on being professional and less about just having fun
37
Q
what is the elite stage of sports development?
A
- performers now move from country/regional to national squads
- governing bodies are responsible for performer's development
- high levels of support are given to prepare the performers both physically and mentally through: coaching, medical care, equipment, diet an mentoring
- performers lead a lifestyle designed to maintain high levels of fitness- sacrifices are required as their lifestyle will centre around performing and competition
- performers will most likely be professional
38
Q
what is a sports development officer?
A
a professional whose job is to identify and support a planned route for participants and performers through he four stages of the pyramid
39
Q
what is the role of sports development officers?
A
- ensuring all sections of the community are aware of available activities and where they can go to get involved
- distributing information and promoting sport
- organising classes, programmes, coaching, club development and training
- liaising with schools, governing bodies, councils and everyone involved in sports development
40
Q
what is a brand?
A
the creation of a recognisable image that widely identifies a product and differentiates it from its competitors
41
Q
what are the disadvantages of sponsorship?
A
- sponsors can exert a strong influence on a sport, eg. by dictating rule changes, clothing requirements an timings of events
- sponsors tend to prefer high-profile, televised sports with charismatic stars. Minority sports find it much more difficult to attract sponsors
- sponsors can withdraw support if a performer's image is damaged
- performers are often required to spend time at a sponsor's event instead of resting for the next game/competition
42
Q
what are the advantages of sponsors?
A
- the sponsor being linked to success ad glamour can raise their profile and status and increase the sales of their products
- the athlete receives free clothing, equipment and payment. Athletes can concentrate on training and playing and not have to worry about the money
- the sport receives additional funding on top of admission and competition entries, which allows them to develop coaching and community schemes
- the audience benefit when sponsors' money is used to improve spectator facilities
43
Q
what different forms can sponsorship take?
A
- individual
- team and facility
- event