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Psychology - Honours year > Ethics2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ethics2 Deck (41):

Research: Name and describe the 4 Guiding Principles of Research Ethics, as stated in the Ethical guidelines for Social and Behavioural Research

1) Merit and Integrity – Research benefit is weighed against any possible risks; design is based on thorough literature search; honest research with commitment to search for knowledge.

2) Justice – don’t take advantage of a resource pool because it’s convenient; think about where the benefits of the research will flow.

3) Beneficence – Assess risks and benefits to Ps; be sensitive to rights and interests of Ps, reflect on social and cultural implications of research.

4) Respect – inherent dignity and rights of people


Research: Name and describe the categories of Risk for participants

1) Negligible risk = no harm or discomfort
2) Low risk = discomfort only
3) Not low risk = more serious than discomfort, even if unlikely

Where harm =
 Pain, injury, illness
 Distress, guilt, embarrassment, fear
 Feeling humiliated or manipulated
 Damage to relationships e.g. social, employment
 Legal implications

Discomfort =
 E.g. minor side effects of drug, anxiety during interview, having blood pressure taken

Inconvenience =
 E.g. filling in a questionnaire, participating in street survey


Research: Name and describe the two conditions for consent

1) Free – voluntary, no pressure, no excessive inducements, cognizant of power differentials (e.g. doc/patient, teacher/student, show that you can assure Ps if no risk to level of care, future grade, employment etc if refuse)

2) Informed – Ps must understand broad study topic, what they’ll be asked to do, time requirement, risks/ must be comprehensible; tell Ps nature of questions e.g. health, anxiety; tell about content of media e.g. video of boy by father’s bedside; tell Ps if test of some kind e.g. memory or speed


Research: Describe who can/must give consent, what forms consent may take, and under what circumstances consent can be withdrawn

Consent can be given by...
a. Any fit adult 18years or over,

b. 17 year old flinders uni students participating in low risk research

c. For child or young person under 18 years, the consent of a parent/guardian AND the consent of the child or young person

d. For and adult with an intellectual disability or physical impairment, get consent of their parent/guardian AND the individual wherever possible. If there are times they are more lucid than others, try to get consent when more lucid.

e. In some circumstances or communities consent may need to be retrieved from other interested parties also.


Research: Consent must be obtained before commencing any research and will take the form of ....

a) Signed consent form

b) Implied through return of questionnaire

c) Oral under certain circumstances (e.g. recorded for
interview; when getting consent from child or vulnerable adult)

The Participant can withdraw consent at any time, with no reason needed to be given. They can withdraw from participating entirely or just not participate in certain tasks or answer certain questions. Any consequences of not participating must be explained before proceeding with the research.


Research: Describe some processes that protect confidentiality and anonymity

a) Keep consent forms separate to Ps data
b) Use de-identified data
c) Disclose any limitation to confidentiality beforehand, e.g. mandatory notification


Research: Describe strategies for risk/harm minimisation

a) Never assume what Ps might be ok with

b) Sensitive choice of manipulations, anticipate, screen and monitor Ps during research, use thorough and sensitive debriefing

c) Provide Ps with names of specific, accessible, free services if needed


Research: Name 5 things you would seek ethics approval for using, and 3 things you don’t, as stated in the Ethical guidelines for Social and Behavioural Research:

a. People
b. Sacred sites
c. Personally identifiable records
d. Unpublished data on humans
e. Involving or impacting on indigenous people

Don’t need approval for –
a. Gathering publicly accessible information
b. Topic evaluation
c. Audit within university


Research: Describe the actions for ethical review and conduct of research, as stated in the Ethical guidelines for Social and Behavioural Research

a. Stop or modify research that was riskier for participants than you thought

b. Storing and disposing of material confidentially

c. If needed, have a translator present for interview, during research etc, and documents written in language Ps can understand, and a signed ‘translation accuracy certificate’ form from the website if necessary.

d. If done overseas comply with Australian law

e. Payment must be small so not as incentive and must be recorded. No raffles or lotteries.

f. On application form researcher must disclose sources and amounts of funding, or any affiliations or financial interests


Research: Name 5 Guiding principles you need to address when doing research involving collectivities

a. Whether collectivity leaders should be consulted

b. Whether arrangements to address issues have followed process of negotiation

c. Issues of consent, privacy, confidentiality, and harms within collectivity

d. Ownership of data and dissemination or research findings

e. Manner in which disagreements with researcher will be resolved


Research: Name 5 guiding principles that relate to work involving indigenous people specifically

a. Consultation with state/federal/local indigenous agencies re usefulness of research, sensitivity to political and cultural situation of communities concerned prior to design of project proposal.

b. Ideally collaborate project design with indigenous group/organisations, with social and cultural needs taken into account

c. Written consent from Ps and elders/leaders/spokespeople. Clear information sheet to Ps, although verbal if necessary

d. Written research contract (if possible) of agreement re return of identifiable data and secure storage

e. Before publication or presentation of findings, convey findings to Ps and summary of research findings to community through agencies as appropriate. Pictorial material only with consent and handled by their guidelines. Use indigenous assistants or contributors where possible and acknowledge them. Co authorship if possible.

f. When applying to SBREC also send PDF ONLY to Yunggorendi First Nations Centre, they’ll advise uni and their response will be on Uni response to application


Research: Describe guidelines for questionnaires and interviews

a. Consent form not required for ADULT (or 17yo Flinders Uni Student) for questionnaire/survey study. Still include a letter of intro and information sheet

b. Data collection, analysis and storage forever confidential unless have written authorisation from P.

c. Ps free to decline any questions

d. For recording of interview written permission required, unless you can't get written permission due to cultural, literacy, or confidentiality issues.

e. Carry approved ID card at all times

f. In schools – need permission from principle, consent form from parent/guardian and also child if competent

g. Public school need DECD ethics approval

h. In school need criminal history check

i. Telephone survey interviewer, must identify self unambiguously at first contact, indicate position in uni, describe nature of research, inform P they can refuse, withdraw, not answer specific questions etc, guarantee confidentiality and anonymity, give name and contact details of Executive Officer of ethics committee and allowed to verify project if desired.


Research: Describe special considerations for children or vulnerable adults as participants

a. Consent should be given by child wherever possible AND parent/guardian/organisation (where required by law) except for 17yo Flinders Uni Student.

b. Child refusal must be respected

c. Consent should be given by vulnerable person wherever possible AND parent/guardian/organisation (where required by law). If there are times the persona is capable of giving consent, e.g. lucidity, and times they are not, request consent when they are capable.

d. In school, need permission from principle, consent from parent/guardian and also child if competent

e. Public school need DECD ethics approval

f. In school need criminal history check


Research: Describe information privacy principles

The privacy act says that record keepers (i.e. external agencies) can't give info re client details or contact info, so ethics committee usually won’t approve:

a. Agencies providing contact details, although the agency may be able to contact individuals and invite them to contact the researcher

b. Records being obtained unless Ps got full disclosure and gave consent.


Research: Describe information required re application for ethics approval

a. Name, status, contact details of researcher + supervisor

b. Title of project and timeframe for collecting data

c. Outline of project, significance, objectives, methodology, explain how method addresses objectives

d. Info of Ps, how they’ll be obtained, who they are, how many are approached and recruited, from what source, are there cultural or religious concerns

e. Ethical matters including confidentiality and data storage

f. Email PDF to SBREC exec officer

g. Request approval of any changes

h. Inform if project discontinued before expected


Research: List 3 out of the 6 considerations/requirements the (Ethics) Committee must be satisfied with before approving a study which involves deception.



Clinical: what are 2 key things you should consider throughout all your clinical actions?

a) How would I explain/justify my actions if worst consequences occurred?

b) If in doubt over course of action, ask senior colleague


Clinical: Describe the limits of confidentiality in regards to your services to an adult client

a) If client gives written permission to disclose

b) If files are subpoenaed

c) If a child is being abused

d) If serious crime planned or committed (not other criminal behaviour)

e) If required by law

Note: Do not need to tell client if making a notification


Clinical: Describe the limits of confidentiality in regards to your services to a child client

a) If a child threatens to harm themself or others

b) If a child discloses abuse of themselves or others

c) If child is experiencing mental illness/disturbance that their judgement is impaired and is at risk of harm

d) When required by law


Clinical: Define the one circumstance where a ‘Child’ can give voluntary informed consent

It is possible to classify a child as a ‘sufficiently mature minor’. This is a judgement call, get 2 people to make the judgement, keep records of the justifications


Clinical: Describe responsibilities related to appropriate assessment in clinical practice

a) Choose, administer and interpret assessments accurately

b) Explain the nature and purpose of assessments and explain results clearly

c) Use valid, current procedures and trained assessors

d) Don’t publish or disclose assessments to unqualified persons


Clinical: Describe considerations regarding your relationship with clients (hint: appropriateness, case notes, stopping)

a) Don’t invade their privacy where unnecessary for treatment

b) Keep case notes for 7 years minimums, forever for indigenous clients

c) No dual relationships eg don’t employ them as your cleaner

d) Close cases carefully, give full warning, feel comfortable about coming back

e) Stop if not helping after a long enough try, or if out of your depth


Clinical: Describe circumstances where you may need to make a notification regarding firearms

a) If client has mental or physical illness that makes possession of firearm unsafe


b) Has a firearm or license or plans on getting one


Clinical: Outline what information you need to give registrar of firearms when making a notification

Name, address, client illness, reasons for danger.


Clinical: Assuming professional conduct, under what circumstances can you get in trouble for making a firearms notification

a) You can't, but you can get in trouble for not reporting, so if in doubt do it.


Clinical: Name some critical rules for any client/psychologist interactions.

a) No sex with client (duh) + beware the slippery slope – if it could lead to something inappropriate, don’t do it

b) Consent – informed, right to refuse or choose treatment, unless suicidal, homicidal, not competent

c) Be open to anything and always honest, Adopt clients view

d) Clarification – don’t let ambiguity or anomaly go, they might be needing you to investigate

e) Client welfare – keep client welfare above emotional needs, make sure providing appropriate service

h) Competence – must tell client when not competent to provide service then refer them appropriately

I) Consult with colleagues, supervisor

[i. If you feel reluctant to share, RED FLAG
ii. If sharing doesnt help, find someone else to talk to
iii. Don’t share with people who always agree with you
iv. Share frequently
v. Record any recommendations based on consulting in your case notes]


Clinical: Describe some challenges to ethics

a) Working in interlocking systems – between clients best interests and others reactions

b) Meeting worker’s needs – support satisfaction vs isolation/threatening environments

c) Dealing with pressure to acquiesce

d) Dealing with pressure to label – can provide access to resources vs stigmatisation

e) Facing perils of professionalism – don’t get hung up on own or others power

f) Facing gender or racial discrimination

g) Finding time – provide therapy, consult with colleagues, preventative action, thorough assessments, professional development


Clinical: Describe some rules of solving ethical dilemmas

a) No one size fits all

b) If you avoid all complications it can decrease creativity; intuition; and impede progress of clients

c) Be adequately trained

d) Current with research

e) Introspection

f) Consulting others, supervisors, legal advice, codes and standards, check with psychological board

g) Receive personal therapy


Clinical: List 10 considerations in a nutshell for treating a client

a) Confidentiality
b) Protection of client privilege
c) Therapeutic relationship
d) Rights of child
e) Rights of individual
f) Rights to information
g) Safety
h) Legal obligation
i) Rights of parent
j) Rights of society


Code of ethics: what is the 'justice' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• Don’t discriminate (gender, race, religion etc)

• Understand consequences of unfair discrimination

• Assist clients to address unfair discrimination or prejudice against them


Code of ethics: what is the 'respect' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• Clients – treat clients with respect in actions and language, not demeaning, consider their legal and moral rights, don’t denigrate their character

• Colleagues – respect their needs, competencies, don’t criticise them personally when you disagree, be objective and respectful when reviewing grant or research proposals, respect legal and privacy rights of those who made the submission


Code of ethics: what is the 'Informed consent' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• In plain language describe the nature and purpose of treatment: risks, possible adverse effects; info collection, recording, storage, how long you’ll keep it, disposal of info, who has access, process of gaining access; consequences if withdraw from treatment; frequency, duration, costs of service; confidentiality and limits; why you might terminate service.

• Consent required at all times except if: treatment/assessment required by law; ethics committee has waived requirement for research

• Get consent before services

• Consent from legal guardian if necessary (ie minor, intellectual disability), but still from client if possible

• If you don’t need consent, still give info re risks, nature of treatment etc as above


Code of ethics: what is the 'Privacy' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• Collect only the information necessary for treatment

• Don’t require trainees etc to give information you don’t need, unless they give consent


Code of ethics: what is the 'Confidentiality' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• Make provision for confidentiality of records

• Maintain confidentiality after leaving workplace or terminating service to client

• Disclose if: consent of client or guardian; required by law; immediate and specified risk of harm to identifiable person/s that can only be averted by disclosing; consulting colleagues or supervisor but conceal identity of client or if you have clients consent and also tell colleague before disclosure that they are required to maintain confidentiality

• Tell at 1st session, then regularly whenever required after of: limits to confidentiality; foreseeable uses of info generated during course of service


Code of ethics: what is the ' Release of info to client' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• Don’t refuse unless by legislation or by organisational requirements


Code of ethics: what is the ' Collection of client info from associated parties' principle? (Rights and dignity of people and peoples)

• Get client or guardian permission to get info from other party (eg external agency). Try to get consent even if not required by law
• Make sure to inform client before getting their consent who you are getting the info from, why, what kind of info, how you’ll get the info, where it will be stored, tell them they can decline or withdraw consent at ant time, any consequences if they decline, exaplin the rights and limits of other parties confidentiality
• Get consent from other party before getting info, show other party you have client consent, explain to other party what info, why, storage, they can withdraw consent, any consequences if they withdraw, their rights and limits of confidentiality.


Code of ethics: what is the general principle of 'Competence'? (propriety)

• Bring and maintain skills and learning of their area

• Services within boundaries of competence – within limits of training, supervised experience and professional experience

• Services on established knowledge of the discipline and profession

• Adhering to the code and the guidelines

• Complying with law and jurisdiction

• Emotional, physical, mental state doesnt impede competence

• Seek supervision or consultation as required

• If not so competent, get advice about whether you should limit, suspend or terminate provision of services, or refrain from taking on that service


Code of ethics: what is the general principle of 'Record Keeping'? (propriety)

• Make and keep adequate records

• Keep for minimum of 7 years since last contact with client, unless legal or organisation rules say otherwise

• If client is under 18, retain records until client age 25 at least

• Don’t refuse request to amend inaccurate info, within consideration of legal and organisational requirements


Code of ethics: what is the general principle of 'Professional responsibility'? (propriety)

• Skill and care expected

• Take responsibility for foreseeable consequences

• Take steps to prevent harm occurring from your conduct

• Don’t give service longer than necessary for client

• Be responsible for decisions

• Take steps to ensure services and products are used appropriately

• Maintain professional boundaries with clients

• Regularly review contractual arrangements with clients and make changes with clients consent where necessary


Code of ethics: what is the general principle of 'Termination of services'? (propriety)

• If client not benefitting, if can't practice anymore, if problem with client means its best to withdraw

• Take care of clients psychiatric state when terminating

• Arrange continued service for client, also arrange free/cheaper service if client can't afford service anymore

• Tell client why terminating


Code of ethics: what is the general principle of 'Psychological Assessment'? (propriety)

• Use established procedures, observe standards

• Specify purpose of assessment and indicate limits