Flashcards in Psyc7006 - Prosocial emotions - wk2 Deck (12):
How is the motivation to do prosocial behaviour explained by social identity theory (individuals)?
People are motivated to engage in prosocial behaviour that benefits groups they identify with (category inclusion - intergroup boundaries) e.g., M v F OR --> all human (depending on what is salient)
Similarly, people behave inline with group norms that prescribe appropriate behaviour (category norms) which normally relate to the groups strategic concerns (Category interests) such as projecting/maintaining a positive identity (Self-esteem) and reducing tension.
This often leads to prosocial behaviour, since group are inherently social in nature and benefit from this behaviour.
Category inclusion (group inclusion)
Category norms (group norms)
Category interests (things that will benefit the group)
What is Social Identity Theory (SIT)?
That people are motivated to behave in line with group they belong to.
what is Arnold's appraisal theory of individual emotions?
Appraisal of situation leads to emotions
How can Arnolds appraisal theory of individual emotions be applied to group based Emotions?
When Social ID is salient = you appraise at group level --> group-based emotion --> action
e.g., You're employed -> the unemployed people are lazy -> feel anger
How can emotions (first) lead to prosocial behaviour (second)?
and how can this be applied to SIT? (category inclusion, norms, interests)
Emotions --> social group membership
therefore, sharing emotions is a path to shared understanding and action.
(emotion experiences at individual level; recognition others with the same emotion -> group formation)
Category inclusion: emotions include others in ingroup -> group foundation
Category norms: emotions prescribe norms for action, guilt -> responsible
Category interest: emotions shape preferences strategies relevant for the group, guilt -> helping
What are the 3 classes of emotions that promote helping behaviour?
2. Sympathy and Empathy
3. Anger and Outrage
What are the 3 components of effective (prosocial) emotions?
i.e., Category X, Y and Z.
(what are the requirements for an emotion to lead to prosocial behaviour?)
1. Inclusion - shared by both advantaged and disadvantaged groups
2. Norms - prescribes the same norms of action
3. Interests: recognizes expertise and experience of both groups
using the 3 components of effect emotions (inclusion, norms and interests) describe how guilt does or does not promote prosocial behaviour
Guilt occurs when a group has committed a moral transgression, thus they are responsible for another groups disadvantaged.
Inclusion - cannot reduce group boundaries because disadvantaged do not feel guilt; no sharing
Norms: responsibility prescribes 'doing the right thing' in the eyes of others (apology, compensation) rather than striving for social equality. Does not change the social inequality.
Interest: To alleviate groups tension due to guilt. Main goal is mere cohesion - not equality/removing group boundaries
using the 3 components of effect emotions (inclusion, norms and interests) describe how sympathy does or does not promote prosocial behaviour
Sympathy - moved or touched by another's suffering and wanting to help, absense of blame (to either in- or out- group), focus is on the other (recognition of the plight of the disadvantaged.
Inclusion: focus on ingroup -> outgroup not shared.
Norms: paternalistic helping leading to dependency not autonomy e.g., provide food but not tools/education
Interest: neglects expertise and experience of disadvantaged
using the 3 components of effect emotions (inclusion, norms and interests) describe how EMPATHY does or does not promote prosocial behaviour
Empathy - psychological process in which self is merged with the other, thus, experiencing the events with the disadvantaged group rather than for them (sympathy) empathy can be accompanied by feelings of sympathy.
Inclusion: can reduce group boundaries, disadvantaged could feel sympathy as an outcome of the empathy.
Norms: perceived interchangeability, i will help you because you can help me.
Interests: because the "bonds of we" empathy motivates strongly prosocial behaviour
CAUTION - danger of assimilation > realistic differences between the subgroups disappear and strengths of each group is not recognized. perceived interchangeability does not address the real issue, lowering clear norms for action - if these two issues occur than long term change could be far away
What are category norms?
group norms that prescribe appropriate behaviour (category norms)