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Flashcards in Ethnic Differences In Achievement Deck (34)
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Define the term 'ethnic group'.

Lawson + Garrod: 'People who share common history, customs and identity, as well as, in most cases, language and religion, and who see themselves as a distinct unit.'


Define an external factor.

Factors outside the education system, such as the influence of home and family background and wider society.


Define an internal factor.

Factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions between pupils and teachers, and inequalities between schools.


How do intellectual and linguistic skills affect educational achievement?

Cultural deprivation theorists:
- Argue many children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences.
- Result: poorly equipped for schools because they've not been able to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills.

Bereiter + Engelmann:
- Consider the language spoken by low-income black American families as inadequate for educational success.
- Ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable of expressing abstract ideas.


How do attitudes and values affect educational achievement?

Cultural deprivation theorists:
- Lack of motivation is a major cause of the failure for many black children.
- Some black children are socialised into a subculture that instils a fatalistic 'live for today' attitudes that doesn't value education and leaves them unequipped for success.


How does family structure and parental support affect educational achievement?

Moynihan (cultural deprivation):
- As many black families are headed by a lone mother, their children are deprived of adequate care as she has to struggle financially in the absence of a male breadwinner.
- Sees cultural deprivation as a cycle.

Murray (new right):
- High rate of lone parenthood and a lack of male role models leads to underachievement of some minorities.


Note one example of compensatory education.

Operation Head Start in the USA was to compensate children for the cultural deficit they're said to suffer because of deprived backgrounds.


Give three criticisms of cultural deprivation.

- Ignores positive effect of ethnicity on achievement
- The black Caribbean family, far from being dysfunctional, provides girls with positive role models of strong independent women.
- Argues this is why black girls tend to be more successful in education than black boys.

- Challenges Pryce's view that black pupils fail because their culture is weak and they lack self-esteem.
- Argues that black pupils under-achieve not because of low self-esteem, but because of racism.

- Cultural deprivation is a victim blaming explanation.
- Argues ethnic minority children are culturally different, not culturally deprived.
- They underachieve because schools are ethnocentric: biased in favour of white culture and against minorities.


Define multicultural education.

A policy that recognises and values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum.


Define anti-racist education.

A policy that challenges the prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society.


Define material deprivation.

A lack of those physical necessities that are seen as essential or normal for life in today's society.


Give four reasons why ethnic minority pupils are more likely to suffer material deprivation linked to housing and low income.

- Almost half of all ethnic minority children live in low-income households, as against a quarter of white children.

- Ethnic minorities are almost twice as likely to be unemployed compared with whites.

- Ethnic minority households are around three times as likely to be homeless.

- Almost half of Bangladeshi and Pakistani workers earned under £7 per hour, compared with only a quarter of white British workers.


What evidence is there that ethnicity may sometimes be more important than class in pupils' achievement?

In 2011, 86% of Chinese girls who received free school meals achieved 5 or more higher grade GCSEs, compared with only 65% of white girls.


According to Rex, how does racism lead to social exclusion in housing?

Discrimination means that minorities are more likely to be forced into substandard accommodation than white people of the same social class.


According to Wood et al, how does racism lead to social exclusion in employment?

- Sent 3 closely matched job applications to almost 1,000 job vacancies.
- Fictitious applicants using names associated with different ethnic groups.
- Found only 1 in 16 'ethnic minority' applications were offered an interview, as against 1 in 9 'white' applications.


How does Gillborn and Mirza's study challenge cultural deprivation theory?

Found, in one local education authority, black children were the highest achievers on entry to primary school (20 percentage points above local average), yet by the time it came to GCSE, they had the worse results of any ethnic group - 21 points below average.


How does labelling and teacher racism affect educational achievement?

Bourne: schools tend to see black boys as a threat + label them negatively, leading eventually to exclusion. Exclusions affect achievement: only 1 in 5 excluded students achieves 5 GCSEs.

Foster: found teachers' stereotypes of black pupils as badly behaved could result in them being placed in lower sets than other pupils of similar ability. Resulting in a self-fulfilling prophecy of underachievement.

Wright: Teachers assumed that Asian pupils would have a poor grasp of English and therefore left them out of class discussions and spoke to them using simplistic language.


How do pupil identities affect educational achievement?

Archer describes how the dominant discourse constructs three different pupil identities:

- The ideal pupil identity: A white, m/c, masculinised identity, with a 'normal' sexuality. Seen as achieving in the 'right' way, through natural ability + initiative.

- The pathologised pupil identity: An Asian, 'deserving poor', feminised identity, either asexual or an oppressed sexuality. Seen as a plodding, conformist and culture-bound 'over-achiever', achieves through hard worth rather than natural ability.

- The demonised pupil identity: A black or white, w/c hyper-sexualised identity. Seen as unintelligent, peer-led, culturally deprived under-achiever.


How do pupils responses and subcultures affect educational achievement?

Fuller: Study of a group of black girls in yr 11.

- They were high achievers in a school where most black girls were placed in low streams.

- Instead of internalising negative stereotypes, they channelled their anger into educational success.

- Didn't seek approval from teachers (racist).

- Maintained relationship with lower streamed girls.

- Only conformed to school work, not rules.

- Relied on their own efforts/abilities to pass exams.

- Fuller: ways of coping with the contradictory demands of the white British m/c education system, whilst avoiding the ridicule of black boys and maintaining relationships with black girls from lower streams.


Give two criticisms of labelling theory.

- Dangers of seeing stereotypes as simply the product of individual teachers' prejudices, rather than of racism in the way that the education system as a whole operates. E.g publishing league tables, 'A-to-C economy.'

- Danger of assuming that once labelled, pupils automatically fall victim to the self-fulfilling prophecy and fail. Nevertheless, as Mirza shows, although pupils may devise strategies to try to avoid teachers' racism, these too can limit opportunities.


Define individual racism.

Results from the prejudiced views of individual teachers and others.


Define institutional racism.

Discrimination that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate.


According to critical race theory, racism is a 'locked-in inequality'. Explain what this means.

The scale of historical discrimination is so large that there no longer needs to be any conscious intent to discriminate - the inequality because self-perpetuating.

Gillborn: sees ethnic inequality as 'so deep rooted and so large that it's a practically inevitable feature of the education system'.


Summarise how marketisation and segregation affect ethnic differences in achievement.

Gillborn: argues because marketisation gives schools more scope to select pupils, it allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about school admissions.

Moore + Davenport:
- Selection leads to ethnic segregation, with minority pupils failing to get into better secondary schools due to discrimination.
- Example: they found primary school reports were used to screen out pupils with language difficulties, while the application process was hard for non-English speaking parents to understand.


Summarise how the ethnocentric curriculum affects ethnic differences in achievement.

Ethnocentric curriculum is a curriculum that reflects the culture of one ethnic group - usually the dominant culture.

- Language, literature + music: David describes the National Curriculum as a 'specifically British' curriculum that largely ignores non-European languages, literature and music.
- History: Ball criticises the National Curriculum for ignoring ethnic diversity and for promoting an attitude of 'little Englandism'. E.g the history curriculum tries to recreate a 'mythical age of empire and past glories', while ignoring the history of black and Asian people.


Summarise how assessments affect ethnic differences in achievement.

- Argues 'the assessment game' is rigged to validate the dominant cultures superiority.
- If black children succeed as a group, 'the rules will be changed the re-engineer failure'.
- Example: previously, primary schools used 'baseline assessments' which tested pupils when they started compulsory schooling.
- Result: overnight black pupils now appeared to be doing worse than white pupils.


Summarise how access to opportunities affects ethnic differences in achievement.

The 'Gifted and Talented' programme:
- Created to meet the needs of more able pupils in inner-city schools.
- Gillborn: official stats show whites are over twice as likely as Black Caribbeans to be identified as gifted and talented, and 5 times more likely than Black Africans.

Exam tiers (Tikly et al):
- In 30 schools in the 'Aiming High' initiative to raise Black Caribbean pupils achievements, blacks were nevertheless more likely than whites to be entered for lower tier GCSE exams.
- Often because black pupils had been placed in lower sets.
- Effect: can only gain grade C at best.


Summarise how the 'new IQism' affects ethnic differences in achievement.

- Argues teachers and policymakers make false assumptions about the nature of pupils 'ability' or 'potential'.
- They see potential as a fixed quality that can be easily measures and once a pupil is measured, they can be put into the 'right' set or stream.
- No genuine measure of 'potential'.

Gillborn and Youdell:
- Secondary schools are increasingly using old-style intelligence (IQ) tests to allocate pupils to different streams on entry.


How does Sewell criticise Gillborn's view?

- Although he doesn't believe that racism has disappeared from schools, he argues that it's not powerful enough to prevent individuals from succeeding.

- Sewell: we need to focus on external factors such as boys anti-school attitudes, the peer group and the nurturing role of the father.


How has the achievement of model minorities been used to criticise Gillborn?

Critics: As well as the underachievement of groups such as black boys, there's also an 'overachievement' by other 'model minorities'. E.g Indian and Chinese students perform better than the white majority.

'If these two groups do so well, how then can there be institutional racism in education?'