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Flashcards in Demography Deck (55)
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Identify the four factors that affect the size of a country's population.

- Births

- Deaths

- Immigration

- Emigration


Define natural change.

The difference between the number of live births and deaths per year.


Define net migration.

The differences between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants, and is expressed as a net increased or net decrease due to migration.


Define birth rate.

The number of live births per thousand of the population per year.


Define total fertility rate.

The average number of children women will have during their fertile years.


Identify two reasons for changes in the fertility and birth rates.

- Women are postponing having children: average age for giving birth now is 30, and fertility rates for older women in their 30s and 40s are increasing.

- Older women may be less fertile and have fewer fertile years remaining, and so they produce fewer children.


Summarise the following reason for the decline in birth rate:
- Changes in the position of women.

Harper: Better education for women, who prioritise their career over starting a family.
- For example, in 2012, 1/5 of women aged 45 were childless which is double the amount of 25 years earlier.


Summarise the following reason for the decline in birth rate:
- Decline in the infant mortality rate.

- Due to better knowledge of healthcare, more developed medical treatments that stopped whooping cough etc, better nutrition.

- This lead to an IMR of 4 by 2012, compared to 1900 which had an IMR of 154.


Summarise the following reason for the decline in birth rate:
- Children are now an economic liability.

- Laws banning child labour and intro of compulsory schooling meant that children were no longer an economic asset.

- This means parents have less children so they can afford them.


Summarise the following reason for the decline in birth rate:
- Child centredness.

- As the 'child identity' has been socially constructed, parents see 'quality over quantity' so they can pay them all special attention.


What is the reason for the slight increase in births since 2001?

The increase of immigration because, on average, mothers from outside the UK have a higher fertility rate than those born in the UK.


What is the effect of fewer babies being born on the family?

- Smaller families means that women are more likely to be free to go out to work.

- However, better off couples may be able to have larger families and still afford childcare that allows them both to work full time.


What is the effect of fewer babies being born on the dependency ratio?

- Reduces 'burden of dependency' on working population.

- Fewer young adults and smaller working population may increase burden of dependency.

- Childhood may become a lonelier experience.

- Fewer children could lead to them becoming more valued.


What is the effect of fewer babies being born on public services and policies?

- Fewer services (e.g schools) may be needed.

- Affects cost of maternity and paternity leave and types of housing built.

- An ageing population: more old people relative to young people.


Define death rate.

The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.


According to Tranter, what was the main reason for the decline in the death rate from 1850 to 1970.

Infectious diseases such as: measles, smallpox, TB etc.


By the 1950s, what kind of diseases had become the main cause of death?

- Heart disease and cancer.

- Mainly affected middled aged and old people than the young.


Summarise each of the following social factors that had an impact on death rates:
- Improved nutrition.
- Medical improvements.

Improved nutrition:
- McKeown: It accounted for half the reduction in death rate.
- Due to TB because it increased resistance to infection.

Medical improvements (After 1950's):
- Intro of antibiotics
- NHS (1948)
- Immunisation


Summarise the following social factor that had an impact on death rates:
- Smoking and diet.

Smoking and diet:
- Harper: Smoking reduction
- However, obesity replaced it as in 2012 1/4 of adults were obese.
- Deaths from obesity have been kept low due to drug therapy.


Summarise each of the following social factors that had an impact on death rates:
- Public health measures.
- Other social changes.

Public health measures:
- Improvements in housing
- Clean Air Act reduced air pollution.

Other social changes:
- Decline of dangerous manual labour such as mining.
- Greater public knowledge of the cause of illnesses.


Define life expectancy.

How long on average a person in a given year can expect to live.


What is the difference in life expectancy for a baby boy born in 1900 as compared with a baby born in 2013?

- Males born in England in 1900 could expect on average to live until they were 50 (57 for females).

- Males born in England in 2013 can expect to live for 90.7 years (94 for females).


Give one reason why average life expectancy was low in 1900.

So many infants and children didn't survive beyond the early years of life.

For example, a newborn baby today has a better chance of reaching it 65th birthday than a baby born in 1900 has of reaching its 1st birthday.


What is the projected number of centenarians in 2100?

1 million.


Identify three factors that have caused the ageing population.

- Increasing life expectancy: people are living longer into old age.

- Declining infant mortality: nowadays hardly anyone dies early in life.

- Declining fertility: fewer young people are being born in relation to the number of older people in the population.


Summarise the effects of an ageing population on public services.

- Older people consume a larger proportion of services such as health and social care than any other age group, Mainly old (75+).

- Changes to policies and provision of housing, transport or other services.


Summarise the effects of an ageing population on one-person pensioner households.

- The number of pensioners living alone has increased.

- Account for about 12.5% of all households.


Summarise the effects of an ageing population on the dependency ratio.

- Economically dependent group (through taxes - pensions and healthcare)

- As the number of retired people rises, the dependency ration rises + burden of working population.

- 2015: 3.2 people of working age for every one pensioner.

- 2033: Predicted to fall to 2.8

- Age people can draw pension is rising (from 2020, people have to wait until their 66. Rising to 67 from 2026)


Define ageism.

The negative stereotyping and unequal treatment of people on the basis of their age.


In what ways might ageism be seen?

Ageism towards older people shows itself in many ways, such as discrimination in employment and unequal treatment in healthcare.