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Flashcards in Everything Urban Deck (68)
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1

Define the term urbanisation

The growth / increase (1) in the proportion / percentage of the population (1) living in
urban areas (1).

2

Give the meaning of the term counterurbanisation.

Outflow of people (and activities) to more rural areas away from urban areas.

3

Give the meaning of the term world city.

A city that has a major role in global/world affairs (1), being a centre of economic power
(1) and a centre of political/cultural influence (1).

4

Suggest reasons why the hierarchy of world cities may change.

In LICs, rural-urban migration and high rates of natural population increase in urban areas produce large urban growth and a large potential workforce and market – cities
such as Johannesburg and Lagos in Africa may move up the hierarchy as a result and
more cities may enter the hierarchy

the rapid development in many newly industrialised countries (NICs) is producing a rise in global cities, particularly in Asia – cities such as Shanghai and Singapore may come
to rival those at the top of the hierarchy, e.g. London, New York and Tokyo;

some HICs, de-industrialisation and economic recession may reduce the power of
their global cities and they may drop down the hierarchy;
globalisation is increasing the total number of global cities and increasing the rise up the
hierarchy of those in NICs.

5

Explain why there is a high rate of urbanisation in many LICs.

Stage of urbanisation cycle; rural-urban migration and the push and pull factors involved.

high rate of natural population increase in urban areas.

6

What are the positive and negative consequences of rapid urban growth in LICs?

Positive consequences:
development of secondary and tertiary industries concentrated in large cities – demand for labour met by rapid influx of population from rural areas

large pool of cheap, available labour an attraction to more industries including TNCs;

multiplier effect;
a city increases in status and power from economic growth and large population (may become a world city);
positive aspects of living in shanty towns / squatter settlement (‘slums of hope’ idea), e.g.
improved access to education and health care in urban areas;

out-migration from rural areas relieves pressure – mechanisation of agriculture has reduced need for labour.

Negative consequences:
under / unemployment; unplanned growth with loss of agricultural land and unsafe building

demand for housing outstrips supply, problems associated with shanty towns / squatter
settlement (‘slums of despair’ idea);

inadequate infrastructure – traffic congestion, water and
power supplies not extended quickly enough; growth in crime and social problems;

out-migration from rural areas can break up families, cause a loss of working age groups and produce an ageing population; agricultural decline and service decline can occur in rural areas.

7

Suggest reasons why HIC cities have seen a decline in their population.

Aging housing stock
loss of traditional manufacturing jobs,
problems associated with urban living (crime, congestion etc.)
desire for suburban living.
Improvements in transport allowing distance between home and work etc.

8

Give reasons for the increase in urbanisation in LICs over time.

Urbanisation is the progressive concentration of population into urban settlements (towns and cities), which increases areal extent and results from:

- settlement change linked to economic development and government priorities investing
in urban areas
– internal migration from rural areas to urban areas (rural-urban migration)
– change in population structure of urban areas, increasing the reproductive cohort and adding population at a time of relatively high but decreasing fertility and decreasing mortality.

9

Suggest why the percentage of population living in urban areas in LICs is increasing rapidly.

The two key elements are rural-urban migration and high natural population increase in
urban areas.

Rural-urban migration: push factors such as un/underemployment,
poor access to
education and health care,
susceptibility to natural disasters,
lack of food security etc.

Pull factors such as :
opportunities (real or perceived) for work and improved quality of life,
access to higher education and improved health care etc.
High N.I. in urban areas: expect recognition that majority of rural migrants are young,
economically active and of child bearing age so the population structure in urban areas helps to explain the high N.I.;
death rate also falling rapidly in urban areas yet birth rate remains high.

10

Outline two possible causes of the rapid urban growth experienced by cities.

rural-urban migration and population growth of
existing urban population.

Rural – urban migration due to perceived opportunities/
changing agricultural economies etc.

Population growth due to lack of family planning,
need for children, cultural desire for large families etc

11

Explain the positive and negative consequences of counterurbanisation in HICs.

Counterurbanisation is the movement of people out from urban areas to villages and hamlets (allow market towns) in the rural fringe.

May be seen as positive for
family life, but negative for the environment (house building and the effects of
commuting – congestion, pollution, new roads, etc.). May consider both ends of the process; for example, that it is positive for the urban area, but negative for the rural one.

12

Suggest reasons why the total population of some cities is decreasing.

counterurbanisation and the attraction of living environments which are perceived as better outside the city (new town, expanded town, rural settlements,
surrounding rural areas).

The decline in fertility/drop in natural increase rate accompanies economic development and
the demographic transition (Stage 3 and later). In some HICs and NICs, including South Korea, fertility is below replacement level (2.2), so over time, population declines.

13

Suggest why there is a small percentage increase in urban population in HICs.

HICs may be viewed as having reached a ‘peak’ in urbanisation, apart from a continued slow increase in larger cities.

Movements may be between urban areas or within urban and also away from urban areas. Also natural increase will be mostly insignificant in HICs, leading to a lower increase in urban populations.

14

Assess why urban areas are facing difficulties in the 21st century.

The heart of the question is providing reasons, such as,
– population growth rates remain high (especially by migration)
– urbanisation (the concentration of population into urban areas) continues
– globalisation is increasing and is based in the world city network
– infrastructure is old, inadequate and prone to failure
– finance is lacking to fund projects
– governance lacks power and cohesion and may be corrupt
– major projects create their own pressures, e.g. Beijing 2008 and London 2012 Olympics; Johannesburg, World Cup 2010

15

Compare and explain the locations of low-income households in the cities of LICs and HICs.

low income households in HICs near the centre and low income households in LICs on the
outskirts.

A recognition that that there are exceptions to the generally accepted patterns according to local circumstances/planning policy, etc.

16

Give the meaning of the term urban renewal.

The replacement of old structures/buildings with new ones and the conversion of
space/land from one use to another, or the twin processes of redevelopment and
improvement, in towns and cities.

17

Suggest two reasons why urban renewal occurs in the central areas of towns and cities.

A number of reasons may be given, including:
• deterioration of buildings/no longer fit for purpose
• poor living conditions for residential population
• inefficient use of prime central land (e.g. low rise)
• potential profitability of redevelopment
• associated traffic problems and congestion
• response to hazardous events, e.g. bomb, fire, earthquake
• other, such as re-imaging

18

What are the problems when attempting to improve urban areas in LICs?

Areas that require improvement will probably focus on poor quality housing, transport, social
infrastructure (health clinics, schools etc.), pollution, supply of water/sewage etc.

19

Give the meaning of the term gentrification.

a process that occurs in certain inner city areas where old substandard housing is bought and modernised by middle/high
income households, usually in a piecemeal way – or something along those lines.

20

Describe what functional zonation is.

Functional zonation is seen in urban areas where some functions cluster in certain parts of the town or city. Zonation can also occur in a vertical sense also.

21

Explain why functional zonation occurs in urban areas.

• attraction of like functions to increase custom
• the operation of bid-rent and spatial competition
• comparison behaviour, such as comparison shopping
• linkages, e.g. efficiency of doing business with each other
• planning decisions
• accessibility
• social factors
• physical factors

22

Explain why the percentage of population living in urban areas is higher in HICs
than in LICs

HICs at a later stage in the urbanisation cycle; urbanisation associated with
industrialisation in HICs, e.g. from late 18thC in Britain;
by mid-20thC urbanisation stage coming to an end and majority of population already living in urban areas.

LICs at an earlier stage in the urbanisation cycle; industrialisation more recent and urbanisation a more recent process; rapid urbanisation taking place now, the % of population
living in urban areas is therefore increasing but not yet the majority as in HICs.

23

Name the processes that lead to an increase in the numbers of people living in urban areas in LICs.

Two processes need to be named –
rural-urban migration
and
natural increase of people living in the urban area

24

Explain why land values and rents are high in Central Business Districts (CBDs).

bid rent theory – the prospective land use willing and able to bid the most will gain the
most central location.

the most accessible part of the city – central position, focus of public
transport systems;
competition for space from functions that rely on / profit from large numbers of people as
customers or workers;
such functions willing to pay high prices for land or building space that is in short supply as potential high profits linked to accessibility;

25

Explain one advantage and one disadvantage of functional zonation.

Advantages include:
time or cost saving for the function;
aids the consumer, e.g. for comparison shipping;
reduces pollution (zoning).

Disadvantages include: increased competition for businesses;
further to travel for consumers.

26

Outline some of the challenges associated with the continuing growth of cities in HICs and LICs.

In HICs challenges include overcoming traffic congestion,
ageing infrastructure, replacing unsuitable housing stock,
the inner city,
governance,
social disorder, etc.

In LICs challenges include providing housing,
improving or replacing shanty
towns/squatter settlement, providing clean water and electricity,
overcoming traffic
congestion,
governance etc.

27

Why are urban areas are facing difficulties in the 21st century?

– population growth rates remain high (especially by migration)
– urbanisation (the concentration of population into urban areas) continues
– globalisation is increasing and is based in the world city network
– infrastructure is old, inadequate and prone to failure
– finance is lacking to fund projects
– governance lacks power and cohesion and may be corrupt
– major projects create their own pressures, e.g. Beijing 2008 and London 2012 Olympics;

28

Suggest three reasons why it is difficult for many city authorities to provide cities with services such as waste management, health and education.

• scale, physical extent and expansion growth
• population size and population growth
• cost, financing, income generation and debt issues
• political issues, indecision, disagreements, corruption
• outdated systems, deteriorating infrastructure and physical capital
• attitudes and behaviours of urban stakeholders
• events and catastrophes, e.g. earthquakes, conflicts

29

Suggest reasons why the total population of some cities is decreasing.

• social, economic, environmental and political push and pull factors related to counterurbanisation: the attraction of living environments which are perceived as better outside the city (new town, expanded town, rural
settlements, surrounding rural areas)
• demographic reasons: a decline in fertility/drop in natural increase rate accompanies economic development and the demographic transition
(Stage 3 and later), population decrease over time if fertility is below replacement level (2.2) in some MICs and HICs, including South Korea.
• economic reasons: high costs, decline in inner city employment, improved transport and internet
• social reasons: conflict/social unrest, more urban crime
• environmental reasons: increased urban pollution
• political reasons: government decentralisation policies, regeneration.

30

Give the meaning of the term urban renewal.

The replacement of old structures/buildings with new ones and the conversion of
space/land from one use to another, or the twin processes of redevelopment and
improvement, in towns and cities.

31

Suggest two reasons why urban renewal occurs in the central areas of towns and cities.

• deterioration of buildings/no longer fit for purpose
• poor living conditions for residential population
• inefficient use of prime central land (e.g. low rise)
• potential profitability of redevelopment
• associated traffic problems and congestion
• response to hazardous events, e.g. bomb, fire, earthquake

32

Explain why large scale urban renewal has taken place in many cities in HICs.

Most probably due to urban decay of older buildings or where functions have
changed, e.g. deindustrialisation.

there is a need to halt urban sprawl,
supply more housing (as demand spirals upwards due to various forces),
be more efficient in use of resources, reduce pollution, etc.

33

Give the meaning of the term gentrification.

This is the process of an area being upgraded (1)
by an influx of wealthy groups (1)
who
improve the quality of the housing and environment (1).

34

Explain why shanty towns (squatter settlements) develop.

push and pull forces creating rural to urban migration.
such cheap housing is needed (poverty, sheer
volume of migrants but also the inability of urban authorities to cope).

35

Describe the explain the location of shanty towns (squatter settlement) in cities in LICs.

unused/derelict sites in centre;
along roads and railways; in and around transport terminals and industrial sites; edge of urban area; hazardous sites/sites where building difficult, e.g.
steep hillsides, gullies, marshes, flood plains.

Must explain each of the location descriptions above.

36

Describe and explain the positive aspects of living in a shanty town or squatter settlement.

low cost / free land;
may be close to work e.g. in industries located at edge of town;
strong community spirit / support;
once established in the settlement, families (or 2nd generation families) can upgrade housing
as prosperity increases;
initial shanty towns may become focus of a city development policy and improvement schemes put in place / services improve over time
opportunities available in urban area e.g. work, education, more advanced medical care.

37

Suggest reasons why solving the problems of shanty towns (squatter settlement) can be difficult.

dynamics of growth;
funding, finance, poverty and debt; vested interests, corruption, conflicts of interest; lack
of space;
resistance to change, fear, unwillingness to move; the existence of multiple interconnected needs; cities having other priorities; governance issues; economic and/or political instability,

38

Suggest reasons why so many people in towns and cities do not live in permanent
housing.

– as urban populations grow (by migration and natural increase) demand for housing
outstrips supply of housing (public and private).
– many urban dwellers are poor and unemployed or work in the informal sector without regular income.
-Housing costs are greater than they can afford to rent or buy, or build for
themselves.
– provision of public housing by national government or municipal authority is limited and
may be corruptly administered.
– private housing and the property market operate to exclude some groups.
– many urban residents in LICs arrived as migrants escaping difficulty, so built their own
shelters with materials that were easily available.
– communities develop in informal housing, attracting new arrivals and encouraging others to stay by what they offer, e.g. support.

39

Explain why many cities in LICs find it difficult to improve shanty towns or squatter settlements

Sheer cost of upgrading is a massive barrier to cash strapped authorities and favelas
keep growing due to natural increase and net migration so difficult to plan development.
They are vital as sources of cheap housing so it is difficult to raise taxes or rents to help
pay for development.
Additional mark for other aspects such as political opposition, lack of information on which to base development, difficulty of the physical geography as often shanty towns/favelas are built on marginal (e.g. steep, marshy) land.

40

outline reasons why people live in the chosen shanty town(s) (squatter settlement(s))

These may be expressed negatively, e.g. unable to find or afford formal housing, or
positively, e.g. the social network of family, friends and other migrants of the same language and culture.

The reasons may be social/cultural, economic, environmental/physical and
political.

41

Why is it difficult for the authorities to manage shanty towns (squatter settlements)?

The rate of growth is so rapid that it overwhelms the limited resources (financial, services, technical) that central or local governments have.

There should be some focus on the problems of managing such large dynamic developments – they are often illegal, people live there to avoid being managed (or taxed), they are structurally very confusing and often shanty dwellers are hostile to the authorities.

Higher responses should look at both the
problems of the authorities and the complex nature of such settlements.

42

Outline the problems faced by people living in shanty towns (squatter settlements) in LICs.

• Poor quality building materials, high density dwellings on unsuitable surfaces (steep,
unstable, flood prone, etc.)
• Lack of access to utilities (water, sewage, electricity) – disease prone
• Illegality may mean dwellings are removed/uncertainty
• Criminality/lack of law enforcement
• Poor access to social provision (not restricted to shanty towns)
• Poverty

43

Explain why residential segregation occurs in urban areas in LICs.

Residential segregation refers to the physical separation of cultural groups based on residence and housing. People are residentially segregated across a number of dimensions, including socio-economic status, religion and race & ethnicity.

Economic: as the rich pull away from the rest of society, they either relocate to areas where other affluent families live, or they tend to bid up the price of local housing.

The spiralling costs of housing, in turn, displace families with lower incomes. Traditionally the wealthy are located close to the CBD in LICs.

Ethnic/social: different racial and ethnic groups are segregated. Social and ethnic differences
are closely related to each other in American cities, and the vast majority of the most
underprivileged social and occupational groups come from among African Americans.

As the most underprivileged ethnic groups, besides their unfavourable social position, they are also afflicted by a whole series of ethnic prejudices and discrimination. Thus in North American cities low-status groups are segregated in similarly few, large, and spatially coherent areas
as the high-status groups.

Examples are not required

44

Outline the causes and processes of residential segregation within
urban areas.

Causes could include:
• physical: space, relief, drainage, south facing, views
• economic: income/wealth, house types/prices, jobs, transport
• social preference of residents: priorities (travel/schools), racial or ethnic
clustering, discrimination
• political: land use zoning, planning, social housing
• historical: old colonial pattern
• combinations of the above

Processes should examine those processes that lead to segregation so may
overlap with causes.

Processes could include:
• core/periphery processes such as spread/backwash
• cycles of decline/growth
• social and political issues resulting in social or economic segregation
• housing policy: type, cost and ownership of housing
• gradual change in character of neighbourhoods (tipping)
• degeneration/regeneration of areas, gentrification

45

Explain why migrants tend to live in distinct areas in urban settlements in HICs.

Migrants may choose to cluster together to:

reduce feelings of isolation and provide sense of community
– shared background / language
particularly important amongst recent migrants;
preserve identity and promote cultural heritage
– establish own shops, services and places of
worship to serve community’s needs;
- provide a defence related to the fear of conflict with surrounding groups
– the migrants can more easily organise and carry out activities that promote solidarity and safety e.g. protests
against discrimination;
- provide political strength through concentration of votes.

The migrants may be linked by economic hardship so segregation due to:
– very limited access to housing market and little / no choice of where to live
– economic
pressure forces them to live in cheap housing within easy reach of work i.e. inner city terraces or local authority housing.

46

Give the meaning of the term spatial competition.

An effective response addresses both words, e.g. that there are different / rival bids (competition) for the use of space / locations (spatial).

47

Explain why land values and rents are high in Central Business Districts (CBDs).

(classically) the most accessible part of the city – central position, focus of public transport systems;

competition for space from functions that rely on / profit from large numbers of people as customers or workers; such functions willing to pay high prices for land or building space that is in short supply as potential high profits linked to accessibility;
bid rent theory

– “the prospective land use willing and able to bid the most will gain the
most central location”.

48

How do high land values and rents help explain the characteristics of Central Business Districts (CBDs)?

High prices lead to maximised use of land / little unused land so high building density and vertical and underground developments (potentially 2 marks);

concentration of high quality dept. stores, chain stores and comparison goods shops that require high footfall,
and high rents affordable;

concentration of banks and businesses that rely on large numbers of customers and / or workers so high rents justified;

absence of manufacturing industry and low residential population – outbid;

zoning within the CBD (core-frame, clusters of similar functions) according to distance from most accessible position / PLVI as land values / rents decline outwards

– similar uses bid similarly so can afford same
area.

49

Outline two reasons why spatial competition occurs in urban areas.

The main reasons, classically, are:
– urban locations are highly desirable, e.g. for accessibility, convenience, potential profitability, prestige
– the land area available is relatively small in extent, especially in the centre
– how urban land markets function, e.g. promotion
– effects of planning decisions restrict the availability of space.

50

Identify three characteristics of Central Business Districts (CBDs).

Intensive land use
Dense structure
Vertical use of space
Small residential population
Specialised functions/ clustering of certain functions e.g. retail, finance
High rent costs, etc.

Avoid crediting weak observations such as ‘busy’, or ‘lots of shops’. Look for good geographical terminology

51

Describe changes in the Central Business District (CBD).

transport, such as pedestrianisation; to retail, e.g. Birmingham’s Bull Ring; from heritage conservation, e.g. the Singapore River, to iconic buildings, e.g. New York.

Many answers will focus on retail changes as a result of competition from out of town shopping centres in
MEDCs.

Population changes with the reversal of the move away from central cities in HICs may also figure.

Increased development in LICs in terms of high rise buildings replacing traditional, with increases in retail and service industries also likely.

52

Outline the main issues which result from changes in Central Business Districts
(CBDs).

competition from out of town
retailing (not so much of an issue in larger cities),

congestion,

pollution,

lack of space for expansion/development, historic buildings creating planning problems

decay of older centres as CBD may shift, etc.

53

Describe the effects of spatial competition within the Central Business District
(CBD).

The effects are several, including:
– dominance of users able to pay high prices
– other users forced out or seldom found
– maximising use of space by building up (and down)
– little unused land
– replacement of older buildings
– highly active property market, advertising, etc.
Suggest that a full response consists of two developed effects or more simple points.

54

suggest reasons why the Central Business District (CBD) in urban settlements is changing.

• economic e.g. to minimise the use of limited space, increase profits, remain competitive, develop new functions or services

• social e.g. to reflect new living and working patterns, for recreation

• environmental e.g. to replace outdated infrastructure, for the ‘greening’ of the urban area, to reduce congestion, urban renewal

• political e.g. the prestige projects, result of planning decisions, developing the 24- hour city, change in governance, after conflict/terrorism.

55

Describe the characteristic functions of Central Business Districts (CBDs).

• high order retail (shops and stores)
• businesses/commercial
• offices of professional services, e.g. accountants, lawyers
• banks and other financial services
• government
• public buildings, e.g. library, hall
• transport, e.g. railway station, car parks
• other, e.g. churches, green areas, monuments.

56

Suggest why retailing is located in CBDs.

Most accessible part of the city so high footfall and high potential profits;

high threshold population for expensive comparison goods can be met as people travel long distances to shop in the CBD;

status/prestige from CBD location;

high order retail stores are willing to and can afford to pay the high rents/land prices in the CBD;

low order retail stores have large number of potential customers from workers in the CBD and from visiting shoppers;

57

Explain why manufacturing industry is often located at the outer edge of urban areas.

Location at outer edge of urban area offers advantages such as:

availability of more space for single storey developments, car parking and future expansion;
cheaper rents/land prices;
greater accessibility by road, e.g. by ring road or by-pass, avoiding congestion of centre;
proximity to labour supply in suburbs.

58

describe how the locations chosen for manufacturing industry in urban areas change over time and explain why this occurs.

it is likely that older locations will be central, riverside, port area or linked to a resource, e.g. mineral.

Newer locations may be nodal, peripheral, in a planned industrial zone, on an industrial estate or in an EPZ, etc.



59

explain why retailing and other services may move out from the CBD to locations near the edge of the urban area.

disadvantages high costs, inconvenience, congestion, poor access, lack of (CBD)
room to expand, lack of parking for customers, crime, etc.

advantages lower bid-rent, savings on journey times, route nodes and (edge)
junctions give good access, available space (expansion, car parking, storage, etc.), greener site, relative quiet, purpose-built retail park or
estate, attracts custom from wider area, etc.

60

Describe the different locations in which retailing (e.g. shops and supermarkets) is found in urban areas.

For example, progression may be described from the local ‘corner’ shop in a residential area; through a neighbourhood or suburban shopping centre; to the CBD.

There could be indoor mall areas or peripheral retail parks or estates near main roads or road junctions. The
description of location should be more than a list of places

61

Explain how planning has affected the location of activities within one or more urban areas.

Some examples, such as new towns, or where there has been redevelopment (slums or in the inner city) may be easier to use than those where planners have had limited locational impact.

Planning may affect location directly, e.g. through zoning or giving/withholding planning permission, or indirectly, e.g. through provision of a road network that attracts some uses and repels others.

62

Explain how factors, other than bid-rent, cause zonation in urban settlements.

• Environmental/physical, e.g. relief, rivers, wind direction, etc.
• Economic, e.g. transport routes, linkages, complementarity, etc.
• Social, e.g. life cycle, ethnic or cultural clustering, reputation, etc.
• Political, e.g. planning controls, green belts, taxes/rates, etc.

63

Explain why the provision of services is changing in rural areas.

Services may be seen in a variety of ways including retailing, education, tourism, etc. and ‘changing’ covers growth, decline and a shift in the balance between service elements.


Demand is ever changing
due to population change, rising standards/expectations and changes in affluence and/or inequality.

In HICs some remote areas are losing services such as schools and post offices while
more accessible areas are gaining services.

Many LIC rural areas are gaining services
(albeit from a low base) as development trickles down the hierarchy or outward from the
main cities.

64

Suggest the impacts of counterurbanisation on services in rural settlements

Negative impacts:

decline/closure of some traditional services, e.g. bus service and P.O., as many of in-migrants are car users and shop in town; closure of village school if an influx of middle aged or retirees.

Positive impacts:

some services renewed due to increased demand e.g. pubs opening restaurants; expansion of village school if influx of families; improvement of infrastructure.

65

Suggest two reasons why the percentage of people living in slums in many LICs is decreasing.

• increase in the provision of permanent housing/houses with amenities
• schemes to improve and upgrade shanty towns and squatter settlements, e.g. clean
water, mains power, waste disposal, means areas are reclassified
• slum clearance/forced removal
• encouraging return migration to source areas
• decrease in rate of rural-urban migration (?), so housing supply more able to meet
demand
• relocation and resettlement, e.g. new towns, agricultural land
• other such as general development of the country

66

Explain some of the consequences for rural areas which result from urban growth.

• loss of community and traditional social fabric
• population change
• outmigration of some of the original rural residents
• increase in pollution (air, water, land, noise)
• environmental degradation, e.g. removal of trees, loss of wildlife
• shift in values from rural/traditional to urban/modern
• conservation of landmarks and traditional buildings
• change in employment structure
• change in services and infrastructure

67

Outline the impacts of rural-urban migration on the rural areas which the migrants leave.

rural-urban migration may relieve population pressure and pressure on
resources, and provide a flow of remittance income, so improving quality of life in the
rural areas.

On the other hand, it may involve many young able-bodied people, especially males, leaving children without fathers, and a small agricultural workforce
consisting of women and the elderly. This may lead to insecurity, family breakdown,
food shortage, etc.

In HICs, rural-urban migration may lead to reduction or closure of rural services such
as shops, schools and transport and change in the character of villages with an older age profile, a greater proportion of second homes, etc.

68

Explain the possible impacts on a rural area of a high rate of natural increase.

These may be seen as both positive and negative – if impacts are entirely one
sided, then can still gain max. Some impacts may be neutral or both positive and negative
such as increased outmigration.

Positive impacts could include:
• Increased labour supply
• More population to support ageing relatives
• More dynamic population

Negative impacts could include:
• More mouths to feed – hunger/famine (overpopulation)
• Unemployment increases
• Farms increasingly subdivided into smaller less economic plots
• Social unrest
• Overcrowding in housing, etc. – migration to the urban areas