Evolution 10.3 Gene Pools and speciation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Evolution 10.3 Gene Pools and speciation Deck (36)
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1

What is a gene pool?

consists of all the genes and their different alleles, present in an interbreeding population

2

How can multiple gene pools exist?

populations of same species can be geographically isolated

3

How can individuals contribute to the gene pool of the next generation?

reproduction

4

What is genetic equilibrium?

when all members of a population have an equal chance of contributing to the future gene pool

5

What is evolution?

the cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population overtime

6

Why can evolution occur?

mutations like new alleles, selection pressures favouring the reproduction of some varieties over others, barriers to gene flow between different populations

7

If a population is small, how can evolution additionally occur (cannot occur in large population)?

random events can also have a significant effect on allele frequency

8

What are selection pressures?

environmental factor that act selectively on certain phenotypes resulting in natural selection

9

What are the three patterns of natural selection?

stabilizing selection, disruptive selection, and directional selection

10

What occurs during stabilizing selection?

Selection pressures act to remove extreme varieties.
Individuals with the average form of a trait have the highest fit.

11

Give an example of stabilizing selection.

Human babies (too small ones are unable to defend themselves from infections and staying warm, too large ones are too large to deliver naturally)

12

What occurs during disruptive selection?

Selection pressures act to remove intermediate varieties, favouring the extremes
Individuals with either extreme variation have a greater fitness than individuals with the average trait.

13

What occurs during directional selection?

The population changes as one extreme of a range of variation is better adapted.
Individuals that display a more extreme form of a trait have a greater fit than individuals with an average form of the trait

14

What is speciation?

formation of a new species by the splitting of an existing population. They become reproductively isolated

15

When does speciation occur?

when various barriers isolate the gene pool of one population from tat of another.

16

What are the types of reproductive isolation?

Temporal (sympatric), Behavioural (sympatric), Geographic (allopatric)

17

What does reproductive isolation geographically mean?

Geographic separation of population where species come from same ancestor but because of different environmental pressures, need to adapt that causes them to evolve differently.

18

What does reproductive isolation behaviourly mean?

Sometimes isolation of gene pools occurs within the same geographical area.

When closely related individuals differ in their courtship behaviour, they are often only successful in attracting members of their own population

19

What does reproductive isolation temporarily mean?

For temporal isolation of gene pools in the same area, Populations may mate or flower at different season or different times of the day

20

In what ways can speciation occur?

abruptly or gradually due to divergence of isolated propulations

21

What is gradualism?

idea that species slowly change through a series of intermediate forms. Evolution occurred through long sequence of continuous intermediate forms

22

Why could gradualism not be completely true?

there was sometimes an absence of intermediate form in fossil records

23

What is punctuated equilibrium?

Long periods of relative stability in a species are "punctuated" by periods of rapid evolution

24

How could gaps in fossil record possibly not be gaps at all?

Punctuated equilibrium reasons that there was not no long sequence of intermediates.

25

What can lead to rapid speciation?

geographical isolation (allopatric speciation), opening of new niches within a shared geographic range

26

Where is rapid speciation common?

organisms with short generation times (prokaryotes/insects)

27

What are polyloid organisms?

more than two sets of homologous chromosomes

28

How do polyloids happen?

• Hyberdization event between different species
• Occurs when chromosomes duplicate in preparation for meiosis but then meiosis does not occur
• The result is a diploid gamete that when fused with a haploid gamete produces a fertile offspring.
• It has become reproductively isolated from the original population
• It can self -pollinate or mate with other polyploidy plants
• Can lead to sympatric speciation

29

Describe characteristics of polyploid?

polyploids may be well adapted to their environment;
common in plants / named example of speciation by polyploidy;
polyploidy is a form of sympatric speciation;
leading to reproductive isolation from parent species;
polyploid individuals can interbreed with one another;
A. named example (eg tomato, wheat, sugar beet, bagworm moth);
B. alteration of number of chromosomes (euploidy) / three (or more) sets of chromosomes;
C. larger nuclei / larger cells;
D. larger organisms / more vigorous; E. (generally) infertile;
F. alloploidy when of different species;

30

Outline example of a speciation through polyploidy

Alliun genus (onions, garlic and chives);
Determining species in the genus presents challenge to taxonomist as polyploidy are common within genus;
results in reproductive isolation (otherwise similar population)
reproduce asexually, polyploid gives advantage over diploidy under selection pressure;