Evolution 5.3 Classification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Evolution 5.3 Classification Deck (31)
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What are organisms classified into?

All organisms are classified into three domains. (Archaea, eubacteria and eukaryote should be used for the three domains. Members of these domains should be referred to as archaeans, bacteria and eukaryotes)


Why are viruses not classified as living organisms?

  1. They are acellular: viruses are not composed of cells
  2. They have no metabolism: metabolism is the sum total of all biochemical reactions that occur inside cells… without cells viruses have no metabolism
  3. They are unable to reproduce independently viruses must inject their genetic material into a host cell in order to replicate themselves


How do taxonomist classify species?

They use the hierarchy of taxa.


What are the principal taxa for classifying eukaryotes?

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti


Classify one animal species from domain to species level.

Lion Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Panthera Species: leo


Classify one plant species from domain to species level.

Dog Rose Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Angiosperms Class: Eudicot Order: Rosales Family: Rosaceae Genus: Rosa Species: canina


Why do we use the system of binomial nomenclature for naming?

- Universal system helps international collaboration - Names are descriptive (is Latin)

- The bionomial system allows us to identify species that are closely related (i.e. Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus)


Which plant phyla has vascular tissues?



What are four plant phyla? (give example)

Bryophyta - mosses

Filicinophyta - ferns 

Coniferophyta - conifers 

Angiospermophyta - flowering plants


What characteristics identify Bryophyta?

  • have no roots
  • have simples leaves/stems
  • produce spores in capsule
  • are nonvascular - exhibit alternation of generations/ is a significant gametophyte generation


What characteristics identify Filicinophyta?

  • have roots, stems and leaves
  • (often) have divided/pinnate leaves
  • produce spores in sporangia/ spores on undersides of the leaves
  • exhibit alternation of generations - have primitive vascular tissues


What characteristics identify Coniferophyta?

  • have woody stems
  • (often) have narrow leaves/needles/scales
  • produce seeds in cones/ unenclosed seeds


What characteristics identify Angiospermophyta?

- have flowers - have ovules in ovaries - produce seeds (with hard coats) in fruits


What are the different phyla for animals?

Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda


What characteristics identify Porifera?

• No clear symmetry

• Attach to a surface under water 

• Pores (holes) extend through the body

• No mouth or anus


What characteristics identify Cnidaria

• Radial symmetry

• Tentacles sometimes with stinging cells

• Mouth but no anus (pocket gut)


What characteristics identify Platyhelminthes?

• Bilateral symmetry

• Flat body

• No segmentation

• mouth but no anus (pocket gut)


What characteristics identify Annelida?

• Bilateral symmetry

• Often have bristles

• Clear segmentation

• Mouth and anus present (tube gut)


What characteristics identify Mollusca?

• Muscular foot or mantle

• Usually have a shell (not squid or octopus)

• No visible segmentation

• Mouth and anus are present (tube gut)


What characteristics identify arthropoda?

• Bilateral symmetry

• Hard exoskeleton

• Clear segmentation and jointed appendages (arms, legs, feelers, claws)


What are the classes of the phylum of chordata?

Birds, Mammels, Amiphibians, Reptiles, Fish


What are external recognition of birds?

  • A bird is an animal with feathers.
  • Birds have two legs and two wings.
  • Birds have a beak or a bill.
  • They lay eggs on land
  • They are warm-blooded


What are physical characteristics of mammels?

  • They have fur or hair.
  • The babies drink milk from their mother's bodies.
  • They have four limbs (arms, legs, flippers).
  • They are warm-blooded.
  • Most mammals are born alive.
  • They breathe air through lungs.


What are physical characteristics of amphibians?

  • Cold blooded
  • Live both under water and on land (live in damp places)
  • Lay jelly covered eggs in water
  • Breath with gills (babies)
  • Moist skin


What are physical characteristics of reptiles?

  • They have dry, scaly skin.
  • They have short legs or no legs at all.
  • They breathe with lungs.
  • They are cold-blooded.
  • Most young reptiles hatch from eggs on land


What are physical characteristics of fish?

  • Fish are cold blooded.
  • Fish lay eggs.
  • Most fish are covered with scales
  • They have fins not legs.
  • Fish live in water and breathe through gills.


Distinguish between the 3 domains of classification

Bacteria (exp: E.Coli)

  • Prokaryote = no nucleus
  • Cells walls contain peptidoglycan

  • NO Histone proteins

  • NO introns

Archae (Exp: Halobacteria)

  • Prokaryote = no nucleus
  • Cells walls do not contain peptidoglycan

  • Histone proteins bound to DNA

  • Some genes contain introns

Eukaryotes (Exp: Saccharomyces)

  • DNA inside a nuclear envelope = Eukaryote
  • Histone proteins

  • Genes contain introns frequently

  • Cell walls not made of peptidolgycan


What does a natural classification include?

In a natural classification, each taxon includes all of the organisms that descended from one common ancestor 


What does an artificial classification include?

In a artificial classification, the taxa do not include of descended from one common ancestor. 


Outline two advantages of natural classification

  1. It allows us to make predictions about living species, based on what we know about other closely related organisms
  2. It helps us to find characteristics to identify a species