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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (43)
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1

Microevolution

Changes in one gene pool of a population over generations.

2

Macroevolution

Refers to speciations, the formation of an entirely new species.

3

Population

Group of individuals of one species living in one area that have the ability of interbreeding and interacting with each other.

4

Transitional fossils

Fossils that link older extinct fossil to modern species. (have two features in one showing similarity)

5

Hyracotherium

the ancient horse-ancestor of modern horse. Example of transition fossil.

6

Homologous Structures

The same internal bone structure, although the function of each varies.

ex. the wing of a bat, the lateral fin of whale, and the human arm. If organisms have homologous structures, they have a common ancestor.

7

Analogous Structures

Structures, such as a bath's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function but no the same underlying structure. The similarity is merely superficial and reflects adaptation to a similar environment. Analogous structures are not evidence of a common origin or common ancestry.

8

Vestigial Structures

Structures that are remnants of an earlier active structure, such as the appendix. They are evidence that animals have evolved.

9

Stabilizing Selection

This type of natural selection eliminates the extremes and favors the more common intermediate forms.

10

Disruptive Selection

This type of natural selection increases the numbers of extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms.

11

Directional Selection

Changing environmental conditions give rise to this type of natural selection. One phenotype replaces another in the gene pool.

12

Genetic Drift

Change in the gene pool due to chance. Two examples are the bottleneck effect and the founder effect.

13

Bottleneck Effect

Natural disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood reduce the size of a population nonselectively, resulting in a loss of genetic variation. The resulting population is much smaller and not representative of the original one.

14

Founder Effect

A small population, which is not representative of the larger population, breaks away from the larger one to colonize a new area. Rare alleles may be under- or overrepresented.

15

Gene Flow

Movement of alleles into or out of a population.

16

Polyploidy

An organism with extra sets of chromosomes. Commonly occurs in plants.

17

Habitat Isolation

Occurs when two organisms live in the same area but encounter each other rarely. Two species of one genus of snake can be found in the same geographic area, but one inhabits the water while the other is mainly terrestrial.

18

Behaivor Isolation

Occurs when two animals become isolated from each other because of some change in behavior by one member or group.

ex. FireFly blinking..

19

Divergent Evolution

Occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species and becomes exposed to new selective pressures, causing it to evolve into a new species. Homologous structures are evidence of divergent evolution.

20

Convergent Evolution

When unrelated species occupy the same environment, they are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations.

ex. Whale body vs. Fish body. Serves same function, but are different.

21

Parallel Evolution

Describes two related species that have made similar evolutionary adaptations after their divergence from a common ancestor.

22

Coevolution

The mutual evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species.

23

Adaptive Radiation

The emergence of numerous species from a single common ancestor introduced into an environment.

ex. Darwin's Finches

24

Punctuated Equilibrium

Theory that proposes that new species appear suddenly after long periods of stasis. Replaced gradualism theory in popularity.

25

Spontaneous Generation

The theory that living things emerge from nonliving or inanimate objects.

26

Heterotroph Hypothesis

Theory that the first cells on Earth were anaerobic, heterotrophic prokaryotes.

27

Cutin

Waxy coating on the leaves that helps prevent excess water loss from the plant.

28

What is the smallest group that can evolve?

Population. Individuals never change or evolve.

29

Give 6 Evidences of Evolution

1. Fossil Record
2. Comparative Anatomy
3. Comparative Biochemistry
4. Comparative Embryology
5. Molecular Biology
6. Biogeography

30

How old is earth?

4.6 Billion Years

31

What are the oldest fossils and first organisms to develop?

Prokaryotes

32

Clue of divergent evolution

Homologous Structures

33

Something unique about analogous structures

NOT EVIDENCE OF COMMON ORIGIN

34

Common Ancestor=

Common Biochemical Pathways

35

What was weak about Darwins theory of evolution?

Can't explain sources of variation in a population.

36

Requirements for a stable Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

1. Population must be large.
2. Population must be isolated.
3. No mutations.
4. Random Mating
5. No natural selection

37

What does natural selection do?

It causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in gene pool.

38

What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation?

p+q=1 or p^2+2pq+q^2=1

p=dominant
q=recessive
p^2=homo-dominant
q^2=homo-recessive

39

Name six forms of isolation that cause new species to form.

1. Geographic isolation
2. Polyploidy
3. Habitat Isolation
4. Behavioral Isolation
5. Temporal Isolation
6. Reproductive Isolation

40

What was the ancient atmosphere like?

H4, NH3, H2O, N2, NO FREE OXYGEN

41

Describe the A.I. Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane experiment

In the 1920's, hypothesized, separately that under the conditions of early Earth, organic molecules could form. They state that in the absence of corrosively reactive molecular oxygen that would react with and degrade them, organic molecules could form and persist.

42

Describe the Stanley Miller and Harold Urey experiment.

In the 1950's, tested the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis and proved that almost any energy source would have converted inorganic molecules in the early atmosphere into a variety of organic molecules, including amino acids. They used electricity to mimic the lightning and U.V. light that must have been present in great amounts in the early atmosphere.

43

Describe the experiment of Sidney Fox.

He was able to produce membrane-bound, cell-like structures he called proteinoid microspheres, which would last for several hours in a laboratory.