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Flashcards in EWT - misleading information Deck (6)
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1

What is Loftus and Palmer's study on leading questions in regards to misleading information of EWT?

• participants shown videos of car accidents
• asked to estimate the speed of the car but the verb was changed each time: e.g "how fast was the car going when it HIT the other car?" vs "how fast was the car going when it SMASHED the other car?"
• the word used affected the estimated speed, e.g 'hit' and 'bumped' were estimated lower than 'smashed'
• leading questions affect accurate EWT

2

How did Loftus and Palmer use a leading question about broken glass to alter the memory of the participants?

• asked the participants if there was any broken glass, even though there wasn't any in the video, and some people said there was
• those who estimated a higher speed also were presumably more likely to say there was broken glass
• the leading question altered the memory and made them believe there may have been broken glass, which they may never have considered if they were not asked about it

3

What is post-even discussion?

The memory of an event may be altered or 'contaminated' through discussing events with others and/or being questioned multiple times

e.g talking to other witnesses before talking to a police officer could mean your EWT is more inaccurate because the may have influenced your memory

4

What is the conformity effect in regards to post-event discussion and how did Gabbert and colleagues investigate it?

• the conformity effect is when witnesses may all come to an agreement of the event if they discuss it
• in a study the participants were put into pairs and each watched a different video of the same event so they could have individual unique perceptions of the event
• two conditions: some discussed the event with their partner and some didn't. everyone was asked to recall the event individually
• discussion influenced their memories

5

What is repeat interviewing in regards to post-event discussion?

our memories of an event may change overtime - due to small changes during recollection

(especially as a cause of leading questions, especially in child witnesses of crime)

the new memory is no longer the same as the original memory, leading to inaccuracy of EWT in repeated interviews

6

Evaluation of misleading questions and the accuracy of EWT

(-) Lab experiment - participants may have low motivation and may not take it seriously. the effects of misleading information may not be as strong in real life EWT
(-) low ecological validity: participants are not undergoing the anxiety the would experience if the experiment was real which could intervene with the accuracy of EWT
(+) Braun et al - research support for misleading info creating false memories
(+) real word application - justice systems use EWT