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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (41):
1

Culture

The shared understandings (beliefs), values, practices (customs, rituals, traditions) and symbols (cultural artifacts) of a group of people.

2

Values - Characteristics

-Few
-More global and abstract than beliefs
-Widely accepted
-Value conflicts

3

Characteristics of Culture

-Specific to a group of people
-Individuals socialized into culture(s)
-Can belong to many different cultures (subcultures)
-Within cultural group-shared beliefs, behaviors, etc.
-Culture changes

4

Mediated Pop Culture

A culture that develops from/for the people that is distributed through mass media to the people and that conveys meaning through signs(symbols) and cultural artifacts.

5

Characteristics of Pop Culture

1. Origin
2. Motivation
3. Diffusion
4. Shelf-life

6

2 dominant models of communication

1. Transmission Model
2. Cultural Model

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transmission model

source-----> message-----> receiver

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transmission model

Harold Lasswell (1948) and Paul Hodkinson (2011)

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cultural model

Relationship Between
1. Processes of social communication
2. Production of a common culture

10

cultural model

Culture as communication is the process of producing new shared meaning out of the interaction of historically given shared meanings and individually created meanings.

11

cultural model

rituals social construction of reality = new shared meanings

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2 Theoretical Approaches

-Social Psychological Perspective
-Critical/Cultural Studies

13

2 Theoretical Perspectives

- Media-as-Shaper
- Media-as-Mirror

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Ongoing process

media representations influence society and reflect society

15

Story

-Has a beginning, middle, and end
-Conflict
-Events-causal connection

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Conflict

-Not necessarily negative
-Driving force of the story
-Balance and equilibrium disrupted
-Mission

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Characters

-Each has a role to play; serve a function
-Protagonist-leading character

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Message

-Central message of story
-Ideological or moral statement that works as the central theme throughout the story

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Formulaic Premise

-the initial circumstance, situation, in which characters find themselves
-Tells the audience what it can expect when it comes upon the story

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Formulaic Structure

-Reaffirms the worldview (ideology) of the story
-Most common structure (order/chaos/order)

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Formulaic Plot

-A planned series of events in a narrative, progressing through a struggle of opposing forces to a climax and a conclusion
-conflict is central to most plots; artificially built into plots

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Formulaic subplot

secondary stories that are frequently interwoven into narratives

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Plot Conventions

recurrent incidents that appear within the narrative

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5 Media Trends-Business of Pop Culture

1. Media fragmentation
2. Concentration of Ownership
3. Mass Media Conglomerates
4. Cross-media ownership
5. Globalization

25

Political Economy Perspective

Structure of Business
Profit oriented business model/mind-set
Effect on content

26

Stages from creation to consupmtion

-production
-distribution
-marketing & promotion
-exhibition

27

Vertical Integration

Company owns production, distribution, and exhibition processes

28

Horizontal Integration

Company owns companies within tv, movies, music, books, magazines, radio

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Advantages of vertical and horizontal integration

-cost effective
-enables company to control whole process
-cross promotional marketing

30

Disadvantages

-people with certain views of the world are the only ones producing products
-loss of quality
-difficult for independent artists
-lack of competition drives prices up

31

Commodification

the process whereby a product, a person, etc. is transformed into an object that is available for sale for a profit

32

Robert McChesney-Age of Hyper-commercialism

Media more concerned about pleasing advertisers (increasing ratings to attract advertisers) than about producing good quality TV shows or informative news

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Branded Entertainment

Embedding one's brand or brand icons as part of any entertainment property in an effort to connect with consumers in a compelling way

34

Trends

-Advertising, branding and entertainment are converging at an accelerating rate

35

Why is this convergence happening?

-Audience fragmentation
-Ad-avoidance hardware

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Solution

-Place brands wherever consumers are located
-Branded Entertainment and product placement

37

Product Placement

embedded advertising placed visually

38

Product integration

embedded advertising which characters talk about the specific product

39

Characteristics of embedded advertising

-media consumption
-paid
-credibility
-agencies

40

Intended Effects of PP

-Brand awareness
-brand familiarity and liking
-brand recall
-create realism ( increased authenticity of the content)
-indirect product endorsement/perceived popularity
-revenue stream for production

41

Unintended Effects of PP

-story content may be compromised
-blurring of selling and entertainment
-controversial products (tobacco, alcohol, guns, etc.) circumvent advertising restrictions and bans
-Lack of disclosure
-Manipulation?