exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Business and intercultural communication > exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in exam 1 Deck (99)
Loading flashcards...

"Culture" definition Hofstede

“the collective programming of the mind which
distinguishes the member of one group or category
of people from another”


How does culture affect business?

Hiring, interaction, class/gender structure, how to reward people, negotiations


Hofstedes dimensions

- how does national culture influence management practices?
six aspects of national culture that affect organisations:
-Power distance
-Avoidance of uncertainty
-Long-Term Orientation


Hofstede Individualism:

-degree to which individuals are integrated into groups
-ties between individuals are loose
-people are expected to look after themselves and immediate family
-USA, canada, germany, france, sweden etc
-identity based on individual
-right to private life
-vlue standards shold apply to all (universalism)
-emphasis on individual achievement and initiative (leadership ideal)
-decisions based on individuals needs


Hofstede Collectivism:

-people are integrated into strong, cohesive ingroups, protectiing them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty
-China, Indonesia, thailand etc
-identity based on social system
-private life invaded by institutions and organisation one belongs to
-value standards differ for in and out groups: particularism
-emphasis on belonging: membership ideal
-decisions made according to whats best for the group


Hofstede collectivism work:

-employees act in interest of their in group
-relatives of employer and employee preferred in hiring
-personal relationships prevail over task and company
-entrepreneurs report contribution of others to results


Hofstede individualism work:

-employees supposed to act as economic men
-family relationships seen as disadvantage in hiring
-task and company prevail over personal relationships
-entrepreneurs claim own results without contribution of others


change and culture: individualism

-focus on how change is good for them
-allow indidivuals to ask and formulate questions


change and culture: collectivism:

-focus on how change is good for the group
-allow the group to ask and formulate questions
-allow the group to consult with each other and spedn time working on their responses, questions and concerns


Power distance:

-the extent to which less powerful members accept
and expect that power is distributed unequally
-represents inequality, but defined from below, not
from above
-suggests that followers as much as leaders endorse a
society’s level of inequality
-the extent to which children are socialised towards
obedience or towards initiative.


Measuring power distance:

-employees express disagreement with management?
-employee loses respect for manager who asks for their advice before making a decision


Hofstede power distance norms low:

-all should be interdependent
-powerful people should try to look less powerful than they are
-older people are neither respected nor feared
-all should have equal rights
-the system is to blame


Hofstede power distance norms high:

-a few should be independent
-powerful people should try to look powerful
-older people respected and feared
-power hlders are entitled to privilege


Hofstede power distance work high:

-centralised decision structures
-subordinates expect to be told
-innovations need good support from hierarchy
-information constraint by hierarchy


Hofstede power distance work low:

-decentralised decision structures
-subordinates expect to be consulted
-openness with information


change and power distance: hierarchical

-senior staff makes announcements
-use legitimate power to exercise authority
-tell subordinates what to do differently


change and power distance: egalitarian

-use influenceing skills
-include them in decision
-allow for questions
-provide a forum for discussion


uncertainty avoidance:

-deals with societies tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity
-indicates to which extend a culture programs its members to either feel comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured situations
-high UAI tries to minimise uncertainty by strict laws, rules and security measures
-people in high UAI are more emotional and motivated by inner nervous energy


measuring uncertainty avoidance

-company rules should not be broken
-competition among employees does more harm than good


Hofstede uncertainty avoidance norms: high

-expressions of emotions
-conservatism, law and order
-older people are respected and feared


Hofstede uncertainty avoidance norms: low

-suppression of emotions
-tolerance of diversity
-oppenness to change and innovation
-younger people are respected


Hofstede uncertainty avoidance work: low

-weak loyalty to empoyer
-top managers involved in strategy
-many new trademarks granted
-belief in generalist and common sense


Hofstede uncertainty avoidance work: high

-strong loyalty to employer
-top managers involved in operations
-belief in specialists and expertise


uncertainty avoidance and change: high

-provide specific rules and structures
-recognise their need for information
-lots of data and structure logically
-provide examples
-provide cost-benefit analysis
-focus on compliance wiht procedures and policies


uncertainty avoidance and change: low

-reward creative behavior that moves issues forward
-focus on process of learning
-share information and open communication forums
-start with bottom line then build around their questions
-challenge and questions the way things are done



-refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the sexes
-in high MAS cultures gender roles are clearly distinct
-men are supposed to be assertive, tough and focused on material success, women on quality of life and be modest and tender
-femininity stands for a society where gender roles overlap


Hofstede masculinity-femininity:

-refers to the distribution of roles between the genders
-women's values differ less among societies than men's values
-men's values from one country to another contain a
dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally
different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other
-the assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the
modest, caring pole 'feminine'
-women in feminine countries have the same modest, caringvalues as the men – the genders’ values are similar
-in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive
and competitive, but not as much as the men, so that thesecountries show a gap between men's values and women's values.


Hofstede Masculinity-Femininity: masculinity:

-Have an opportunity for advancement to higher-
level jobs
-Have an opportunity for high earnings
-Have training opportunities
-Keep up to date with the technical developments relating to work


Hofstede Masculinity-Femininity: femininity:

-work in a congenial and fiendly atmosphere
-have good physical working conditions
-have good working relationship with your manager
-work with people who cooperate well with each other


Hofstede Masculinity-Femininity - Norms: masculine:

-ego orientation
-money and things are important
-stress on what you do
-live in order to work
-sympathy for the strong