Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (46):
The existance of multiple pairs of distinct, yet closely related species of snapping shrimp on either side of the isthmus of Panama supports the theory of
Two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate. but the offspring develop poorly and fail to reach reproductive maturity. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?
The postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability
Which if the following statements regrading natural selection is false?
Natural selection causes the creation of new alleles that improve an organism's fitness
The first step in allopatric speciation model is
The geographic isolation of population
The Grants' studies of the Galapagos finches support the theory of evolution by demonstrating
Microevolutionary change over a relatively short period of time.
Non-branching evolution, or the evolution of one species into another without splitting is referred to as
A rapid mode of sypatric speciation that has been important in the evolution of plants is
What is a biofilm?
A thin layer composed of different bacterial species adhered to a surface and metabolically cooperating.
A Darwinian explanation for the rise of antibiotic strains of bacteria is
Under exposure to antibiotics, rare individual cells that acquire genes for resistance leave more descendants than non-resistant cells.
True of False: up to 99% of prokaryotic cells in environmental samples cannot be cultured in a laboratory
When Endler studied male color patterns in guppies, he found that
Natural selection reduced showy coloration in high predation ponds.
What is one important difference between Bacteria and Archea?
The chemical composition of Bacterial and Archeal cell membranes and cell walls is different.
In Darwin's scheme, _____ evolve, not _____.
Decomposes dead organic matter
Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descended from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by
Analogous features are those that
Are similar due to convergent evolution
Which if these evolutionary agents is most consistent at causing populations to become better adapted to their environments over the course of generations?
Microevolution refers to
Changes to the genetic structure of a population over time
What is the significance in evolutionary theory of the Hawaiian plants called silver swords?
They are an example of recent adaptive radiation
The most inclusive taxonomic level is
What generates the genetic variation that natural selection act upon?
Errors in DNA replication
Recombination by crossing over in meiosis
Random fertilization in sexual reproduction
Plant species in both the cactus family and the euphorb family have thick, succulent stems and sharp spines. Which do scientists think is true?
Although the two families are not closely related, natural selection drove the evolution of similar adaptations in response to similar environmental pressures.
Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from
Meiosis, because they do not under go it.
The definition of Darwinian fitness is
The relative contribution of an individual organism to the gene pool of the next generation.
The oxygen Revolution probably began with the origin of which group of organisms?
Eukarayotes capable of photosynthesis
Which event in Earth's history may have been caused by a huge asteroid colliding with earth?
Th end of the dinosaurs in the Cretaceous Extinction
Requires an organic carbon source
What evolutionary innovations appear for the first time in the Cambrian Explosion?
The first adaptions for active predation and hard bodies for defense.
By the rules of cladistics, the only legitimate taxa are
A few birds from a large mainland population are accidentally blown by a storm, and start a new population on a romote Island. Allele frequencies in the storm-blown birds were not representative of allele frequencies in the larger mainland population. This is an example of
The Founder Effect
Mating pairs of a bird species produce four to five eggs per nest. Those producing fewer or more than this have reduced fitness. What type of selection results in this?
What supports the Endosymbiont Theory of the evolutionary origin of eukarotic mitochondrian?
The mitochondrion has a a double membrane, the inner one related in composition to present day prokaryotic plasma membrane.
The bones of the forelimbs of humans, dogs, birds and whales suggest that these species
All evolved from a common ancestor because of the homologous structures
The biological species concept cannot be applies to two possibly distinct species that are
In modern biology, the best classification system is considered that which
Reflects evolutionary history
The evolutionary history of taxa
In a population of 100 individuals, the frequency distribution of domininant allele A is 0.4. there are 40 AA genotypes in the population. Is the population evolving?
Yes. The population is not at Hard-Weinberg equilibrium.
(If it were, there would be 16 individuals)
What assumptions or observations are consistent with Darwin's idea of natural selection?
Populations produce more offspring than their environment can support
Organisms vary in heritable ways
Organisms compete for limited resources
Heritable traits that promote successful reproduction should gradually become more common in a population
In a population with two alleles as a set particular locus, A and a, the frequency of a is 0.3. Assuming the population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the frequency of homozygous dominant?
The system of designating each species by a unique Latin binomial was created by
What were the prevailing ideas prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations of species are unchanging
Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?
3.5 billion years
Darwin would have disagreed with the statement:
Evolution occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics
What occurred in British populations of the peppered moth during progressive industrialization in the 19th century?
The light form became rare and the dark form became common.
In what way are prokaryotes more successful on Earth than humans?
Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass
Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats
Prokaryotes are more diverse in metabolism