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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (46):
1

The existance of multiple pairs of distinct, yet closely related species of snapping shrimp on either side of the isthmus of Panama supports the theory of

Allopatric speciation

2

Two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate. but the offspring develop poorly and fail to reach reproductive maturity. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?

The postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability

3

Which if the following statements regrading natural selection is false?

Natural selection causes the creation of new alleles that improve an organism's fitness

4

The first step in allopatric speciation model is

The geographic isolation of population

5

The Grants' studies of the Galapagos finches support the theory of evolution by demonstrating

Microevolutionary change over a relatively short period of time.

6

Non-branching evolution, or the evolution of one species into another without splitting is referred to as

Anagenesis

7

A rapid mode of sypatric speciation that has been important in the evolution of plants is

Polyploidy

8

What is a biofilm?

A thin layer composed of different bacterial species adhered to a surface and metabolically cooperating.

9

A Darwinian explanation for the rise of antibiotic strains of bacteria is

Under exposure to antibiotics, rare individual cells that acquire genes for resistance leave more descendants than non-resistant cells.

10

True of False: up to 99% of prokaryotic cells in environmental samples cannot be cultured in a laboratory

True

11

When Endler studied male color patterns in guppies, he found that

Natural selection reduced showy coloration in high predation ponds.

12

What is one important difference between Bacteria and Archea?

The chemical composition of Bacterial and Archeal cell membranes and cell walls is different.

13

In Darwin's scheme, _____ evolve, not _____.

populations.... individuals

14

A saprobe

Decomposes dead organic matter

15

Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descended from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by

Artificial selection

16

Analogous features are those that

Are similar due to convergent evolution

17

Which if these evolutionary agents is most consistent at causing populations to become better adapted to their environments over the course of generations?

Natural selection

18

Microevolution refers to

Changes to the genetic structure of a population over time

19

What is the significance in evolutionary theory of the Hawaiian plants called silver swords?

They are an example of recent adaptive radiation

20

The most inclusive taxonomic level is

Domain

21

What generates the genetic variation that natural selection act upon?

Errors in DNA replication
Recombination by crossing over in meiosis
Random fertilization in sexual reproduction

22

Plant species in both the cactus family and the euphorb family have thick, succulent stems and sharp spines. Which do scientists think is true?

Although the two families are not closely related, natural selection drove the evolution of similar adaptations in response to similar environmental pressures.

23

Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from

Meiosis, because they do not under go it.

24

The definition of Darwinian fitness is

The relative contribution of an individual organism to the gene pool of the next generation.

25

The oxygen Revolution probably began with the origin of which group of organisms?

Eukarayotes capable of photosynthesis

26

Which event in Earth's history may have been caused by a huge asteroid colliding with earth?

Th end of the dinosaurs in the Cretaceous Extinction

27

A heterotroph

Requires an organic carbon source

28

What evolutionary innovations appear for the first time in the Cambrian Explosion?

The first adaptions for active predation and hard bodies for defense.

29

By the rules of cladistics, the only legitimate taxa are

Monophyletic groups

30

A few birds from a large mainland population are accidentally blown by a storm, and start a new population on a romote Island. Allele frequencies in the storm-blown birds were not representative of allele frequencies in the larger mainland population. This is an example of

The Founder Effect

31

Mating pairs of a bird species produce four to five eggs per nest. Those producing fewer or more than this have reduced fitness. What type of selection results in this?

Stabilizing selection

32

What supports the Endosymbiont Theory of the evolutionary origin of eukarotic mitochondrian?

The mitochondrion has a a double membrane, the inner one related in composition to present day prokaryotic plasma membrane.

33

The bones of the forelimbs of humans, dogs, birds and whales suggest that these species

All evolved from a common ancestor because of the homologous structures

34

The biological species concept cannot be applies to two possibly distinct species that are

Exclusively asexual

35

In modern biology, the best classification system is considered that which

Reflects evolutionary history

36

Phylogeny is

The evolutionary history of taxa

37

In a population of 100 individuals, the frequency distribution of domininant allele A is 0.4. there are 40 AA genotypes in the population. Is the population evolving?

Yes. The population is not at Hard-Weinberg equilibrium.
(If it were, there would be 16 individuals)

38

What assumptions or observations are consistent with Darwin's idea of natural selection?

Populations produce more offspring than their environment can support
Organisms vary in heritable ways
Organisms compete for limited resources
Heritable traits that promote successful reproduction should gradually become more common in a population

39

In a population with two alleles as a set particular locus, A and a, the frequency of a is 0.3. Assuming the population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the frequency of homozygous dominant?

(.7x.7)= .49

40

The system of designating each species by a unique Latin binomial was created by

Linnaeus

41

What were the prevailing ideas prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?

Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations of species are unchanging

42

Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?

3.5 billion years

43

Darwin would have disagreed with the statement:

Evolution occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

44

What occurred in British populations of the peppered moth during progressive industrialization in the 19th century?

The light form became rare and the dark form became common.

45

In what way are prokaryotes more successful on Earth than humans?

Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass
Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats
Prokaryotes are more diverse in metabolism

46

The phylogenetic system goes:

King Philip Came Over From Germany Stoned
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species